The Alamo (1960)

190 or 192 mins | Western | 27 October 1960

Director:

John Wayne

Producer:

John Wayne

Cinematographer:

William H. Clothier

Editor:

Stuart Gilmore

Production Designer:

Alfred Ybarra
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HISTORY

After the opening credits, a long written prologue explains that in 1836, Texas was under Mexican rule and settlers from far countries and all parts of the United States were considered Mexican citizens. The prologue continues by stating, "Generalissimo Santa Anna was sweeping north across Mexico toward them, crushing all who opposed his tyrannical rule” and forcing the Texans to make “the decision that all men in all times must face...the eternal choice of men...to endure oppression or to resist.” The film, as it was shown at its opening, contained an overture, intermission, entr’acte and exit music.
       Although a 15 Jun 1960 HR news item reported that the film was 210 minutes, at the time of the Oct 1960 opening it had been shortened to 192. According to a Nov 1960 HR news item and other contemporary sources, producer-director John Wayne cut thirty more minutes, in response to a study of audience reaction indicating restlessness during the early parts of the film. Among the several sequences removed at that time were: a birthday party scene for the daughter of “Capt. Almeron Dickinson”; a drunken “Col. James Bowie” finding that “Col. William Barret Travis” has been placed in charge of the fort; “Emil Sande” being killed by “Col. David Crockett,” who then tells “Flaca”; Flaca and “Mrs. Guy” talking as settlers leave the area; the death of “Parson” as Crockett prays; and the defenders of the Alamo discussing their religious beliefs on the night before their last battle.
       Although the Oct 1960 Var review and other sources claim that Wayne’s cinematic version of ... More Less

After the opening credits, a long written prologue explains that in 1836, Texas was under Mexican rule and settlers from far countries and all parts of the United States were considered Mexican citizens. The prologue continues by stating, "Generalissimo Santa Anna was sweeping north across Mexico toward them, crushing all who opposed his tyrannical rule” and forcing the Texans to make “the decision that all men in all times must face...the eternal choice of men...to endure oppression or to resist.” The film, as it was shown at its opening, contained an overture, intermission, entr’acte and exit music.
       Although a 15 Jun 1960 HR news item reported that the film was 210 minutes, at the time of the Oct 1960 opening it had been shortened to 192. According to a Nov 1960 HR news item and other contemporary sources, producer-director John Wayne cut thirty more minutes, in response to a study of audience reaction indicating restlessness during the early parts of the film. Among the several sequences removed at that time were: a birthday party scene for the daughter of “Capt. Almeron Dickinson”; a drunken “Col. James Bowie” finding that “Col. William Barret Travis” has been placed in charge of the fort; “Emil Sande” being killed by “Col. David Crockett,” who then tells “Flaca”; Flaca and “Mrs. Guy” talking as settlers leave the area; the death of “Parson” as Crockett prays; and the defenders of the Alamo discussing their religious beliefs on the night before their last battle.
       Although the Oct 1960 Var review and other sources claim that Wayne’s cinematic version of the story of the Alamo differs somewhat from history, much of the film remains true to the facts or popular legends about the battle. Col. Travis was left in command of the Alamo by Col. James Neill, who is seen briefly in the film. After Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna’s army began to arrive, Travis sent a famous message, claiming that he was “besieged by a thousand or more of the Mexicans [but] determined to sustain myself as long as possible, and die like a soldier….” As depicted in the film, Capt. James Butler Bonham was sent to appeal to Capt. James Fannin. Although Fannin was ambushed and killed near Goliad, as recounted in the film, this incident did not happen until after the fall of the Alamo.
       The film’s “Smitty” had a real-life alter ego, a twenty-one-year-old Texan named James L. Allen, who was sent out as a courier the night before the final assault and missed the battle. According to a Nov 1960 LAEx article, Wayne was undecided about whether Smitty, who was portrayed by teen idol Frankie Avalon, would die with the rest of the main characters but, just before the filming the final scenes, Wayne announced that “The end of the picture is depressing enough. He lives.” As mentioned in the film, the siege lasted thirteen days, partly because Santa Anna’s forces were waiting for the twelve-pounder cannons needed to breach the Alamo’s walls. According to historical sources, Travis did at some point tell his men that escape was impossible and death certain, and allowed anyone to leave without loss of honor. Unlike the film, but similar in spirit, only one man was reported to have left the fort.
       After the Mexicans stormed the Alamo on 6 Mar 1836, Bowie shot and killed two of the enemy from his infirmary bed before being killed, as was shown in the film. Although sources differ on the real outcome of Crockett, some believe that he was probably killed while attempting to blow up the fort’s gunpowder, as shown in the film. Before dying, the 189 Alamo defenders killed between 1,000 and 1,700 Mexican soldiers. Although Santa Anna announced a glorious victory, his more skeptical aide is reputed to have said, “One more such glorious victory and we are finished.” As in the film, Mrs. Dickinson and her baby were spared, as were other noncombatants. The thirteen extra days during which the Alamo’s fighters stalled Santa Anna’s progress north may have helped Texas’ eventual victory, but most sources agree that the self-sacrifice of Alamo defenders was more important as a tremendous morale builder that strengthened the Texans’ resolve to beat their opponent. On 21 Apr 1836, Houston’s army defeated Santa Anna at San Jacinto, shouting cries of “Remember the Alamo” and “Remember Goliad” (in memory of Fannin’s last battle), and won the liberation of Texas. In 1845, Texas became a state.
       A Jul 1951 NYT news item reported that Wayne would “star in, produce and direct The Alamo at Tuacana, Mexico.” In an Oct 1960 LAT article and other contemporary sources, Wayne said he first conceived of the film in 1946. According to a Jan 1960 ^MPH article, the script by James Edward Grant, who also served as associate producer for the film, had been “in constant work, enlarged and changed literally dozens of times” throughout the 1950s. According to an Oct 1959 LA Mirror-News article, Wayne presented the idea to Herbert Yates, head of Republic Studios, to which Wayne remained under contract in the early 1950s and which had made the 1939 film about the Alamo, Man of Conquest (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40 ). However, Yates refused to back Wayne’s idea, but Republic later made the smaller-scaled 1955 picture The Last Command (See Entry) about the Alamo, without using Wayne or Grant’s script.
       In the early 1950s, Wayne considered producing the film in Sonora, Mexico, and even had sets built there, but the money to finance the picture was suddenly withdrawn, possibly because of sensitivity over making a picture in Mexico about “5,000 Mexican soldiers killing the 180 defenders of the Alamo, shrine of Texas liberty,” according to the Oct 1959 LAMirror-News report. While searching for suitable locations in Peru, according to a modern source, Wayne met his third wife, Pilar, who was a local actress. In a 23 Oct 1960 DV article, Wayne disclosed that, besides United Artists, backers of the film included brothers I. J. and O. J. McCullough, and Clint Murchison, all oilmen, and the Yale Foundation.
       The film’s program book also listed Clint Murchison, Jr. and Dabney Murchison as investors. According to the Oct DV article, Wayne said that he put up the rest of the money. A modern source reported that Wayne also tried to interest Warner Bros. in the production, without success. According to modern sources, Wayne eventually mortgaged his house, his production company and other holdings to finance the film. In an Oct 1960 Limelight article, Wayne was quoted as saying, “Every last damn dime I have in the world I tied up in this thing.” During this time, according to an Aug 1959 HR news item, he and his business manager of eighteen years, Bo Roos, parted ways.
       According to a 4 Oct 1959 NYT article, art director Alfred Ybarra began researching the Alamo and San Antonio de Bexar in 1950. An authentic reproduction of the Alamo as it appeared circa 1835 was built over a two-year period on the 22,000-acre ranch owned by James T. “Happy” Shahan, which was located northwest of Brackettville, TX. Although, in an Oct 1960 LAT article, Wayne claimed that they originally planned to build ordinary false front sets, instead the set consisted of completed buildings made from authentic adobe. Because the set was built in the middle of undeveloped land, crews also put in more than ten miles of underground electrical and telephone wiring, as well as modern toilet facilities and five miles of sewage lines. The construction, according to the NYT article, completely changed the economy of the county. A Nov 1960 AmCin article reported that the buildings were constructed to withstand violent extremes of Texas weather. An Oct 1959 NYT article reported plans to make the set a tourist attraction after the film’s production was completed. According to the NYT article, the cast and crew were housed during filming in the abandoned army barracks at nearby Fort Clark, TX.
       A Dec 1959 HR news item reported that a total of 200 players and 5,000 extras appeared in the picture. Wayne’s four-year-old daughter Aissa made her film debut as “Angelina ‘Lisa’ Dickinson” and his son Patrick portrayed “Capt. James Butler Bonham.” According to an Oct 1960 LAT article, his daughter, Toni Wayne LaCava, had a one-line speaking role and Pilar was an extra in the film, but their appearance in the film is unconfirmed. Other actors added to the cast, but whose appearance in the film has not been confirmed, include: Dean Smith (who was also a stuntman), Mickey Finn and Richard Evans. Carlos Arruza, who portrayed “Lt. Reyes,” was a noted matador. According to a Nov 1960 LAMirror-News article, twenty-five stuntmen rode trained “falling horses” for the battle scenes.
       According to an Aug 1959 HR news item, Linda Cristal, who portrayed Flaca in the film, and John Gavin were on loan from Universal; however, a Sep 1959 HR news item reported that negotiations for Gavin to play the role of Dickinson were not completed and that Ken Curtis was cast in the role. An Aug 1959 HR news item reported that Danny Stradella was cast, but he did not appear in the film. Although negotiations for Wayne and Marlon Brando to “swap” cameos in their respective films, The Alamo and The Ugly American , were reported in an Aug 1959 HR news item, neither actor appeared in the other’s film. A Sep 1959 HR news item stated that Diahann Carroll was offered a role, but she did not appear in the film. A 5 Aug 1959 HR news item reported that James Arness lost the role of “Gen. Sam Houston” to Richard Boone.
       Several modern sources reported that Wayne was interested in playing the role of Houston and had originally intended to play a small part, so that he could concentrate on producing the film. However, according to the sources, UA would agree to back the project only if he starred in it, as it was too much of a risk without him. A Nov 1960 LAMirror-News article reported that Wayne originally wanted Richard Widmark to play Travis instead of Bowie and a modern source reported that he later “regretted not playing” the role himself. A modern source adds Teresa Champion, a Flamenco artist who danced on the table in the cantina sequence, to the cast, as well as actor Rudy Robbins.
       The Alamo marked Wayne’s directorial debut, but not, as some contemporary sources stated, his first film as a producer. An Oct 1959 LAMirror-News article reported that director John Ford, Wayne’s mentor and longtime director, was “hovering around” the camera and directed some second unit battle scenes, and a Jul 1959 ^HR news item reported that Ford would direct scenes in which Wayne performed. However, according to special material in the film’s DVD version, all of Ford’s scenes were cut from the final film. In a Nov 1960 LAMirror-News article, Ford shrugged off speculation about just how much he contributed to the final film and claimed that he was the “coach.”
       The Alamo ’s program book stated that 300 rare longhorn cattle were borrowed from several Texas ranchers, including Milby Butler, J. D. Phillips, Cap Yates and Bill Daniel, who was the brother of then Texas governor Price Daniel and who also portrayed “Col. Neill.” A total of eight Todd-AO cameras were used, and according to a Nov 1960 AmCin article, all night scenes were shot at night, due to the use of a new Eastman film negative. Modern sources also add Wayne’s brother Bob Morrison ( Office ) and Rolly Harper ( Caterer ) to the crew.
       According to an Oct 1959 HR news item, the University of Texas allowed the use of its song, “Eyes of Texas,” to be incorporated into Dimitri Tiomkin’s score. The Oct 1960 Limelight review reported that Tiomkin also incorporated other traditional melodies into his score, including “El Deguelo,” the song Santa Anna was said to have played to the besieged Alamo defenders to signal “no mercy.” The film’s soundtrack was released by Columbia Records.
       Although several sources report that the cost of the film was $12,000,000, a 5 Oct 1960 DV news item reported that Wayne’s “final tally” for the film was $14,000,000 and that the film would have to gross $17,000,000 before he netted a profit. To publicize the film, according to a Sep 1959 HR news item, Wayne’s company Batjac intended to spend $100,000 in radio ads. A Sep 1959 HR news item reported that Pontiac would sponsor a special one-hour television show that would feature a rare “trailer-type plug for the film” and show behind-the-scenes footage. According to a Dec 1959 HR news item, two days of production during the filming of the movie were devoted to the television special. An Aug 1960 HR news item reported that Wayne ordered a huge painting by Reynold Brown called “The Last Charge at the Alamo” to be reproduced in 24-sheets as part of ad campaign billboards. According to an Oct 1960 DV news item, 184 pages of material, which the news item described as the “longest single ‘press release’ ever distributed for a Hollywood motion picture,” was sent to “10,000 columnists, government officials, opinion makers, libraries, schools and exhibitors.”
       Although, according to an Apr 1961 LAHE article, assistant to the producer Michael Wayne handled parts of the publicity chores, according to a Dec HR news items, publicist and Wayne’s aide Jim Henaghan hired Russell Birdwell, who had been the chief publicist for Gone With the Wind (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40 ), as publicity consultant. When Henaghan was fired following a dispute with Wayne, Birdwell was given his job. Although a Dec 1959 HR news item reported that Henaghan filed a suit against Wayne, claiming that he had not received full compensation for his work on The Alamo , according to modern sources the dispute was settled out of court without disclosure of details.
       In several Oct 1960 articles, Wayne claimed that The Alamo had a “message.” In the film’s program book, he wrote that The Alamo was “filmed to convey to Americans and people everywhere a sense of the debt they owe to all men who have died fighting for freedom.” Using Wayne’s strongly-held convictions to sell the picture, Birdwell wrote a wordy, one-page ad that was published in the Jul 1960 Life magazine headlined “There were no ghost writers at the Alamo,” which was signed by Wayne and Grant with the words “A Statement of Principle.” Although mostly outlining the legendary exploits of those struggling for Texas freedom, the article, without naming other names, linked the heroism of the Alamo with the coming Presidential election, in which Wayne’s interest was strongly Republican. The statement also addressed the film industry’s controversy over formerly blacklisted writer Dalton Trumbo, who wrote two of the other epic films released that year, Spartacus and Exodus (see entries below), both of which seemed possible contenders for an Oscar for Best Picture. The ad, which cost $152,000, according to a Jul 1960 DV article, received a “free plug” on NBC-TV’s coverage of Sen. John F. Kennedy’s press conference in which former President Harry Truman made charges that the coming Democratic Convention was “rigged” and a reporter waved a copy of the issue of Life magazine, asking if the ad was a “veiled plug” for the candidacy of Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson. A Jul 1960 HR article wrote that the repercussion of the event, which received international attention, possibly allowed “Wayne’s $152,000 gamble [to] pay off very big.”
       The LAMirror-News review stated that the The Alamo ’s patriotism had arrived when “a wary America” needed “a rousing, patriotic shot in the arm.” In Oct 1960, a LAHE reporter, believing that “Leftists and Communists” were attempting “to indoctrinate” the public, praised the “Americanism” values of The Alamo in a lengthy editorial. However, other reviewers, while commending the sweeping battle scenes in the last part of the picture, had criticisms of the film and uneasiness about the hyperbole surrounding it. The New Yorker reviewer pointed out anachronisms in the plot, but complained that in doing so he risked accusations that he was “lowering the prestige of Texas” and “the brave men who died in that heroic fiasco.” The Var review agreed that the filmmakers had “shrouded some of the fantastic facts of the original with…frivolous fancies of their re-creation” and reported that the film contained “homilies on American virtues and patriotic platitudes under life-and-death fire which smack of yesteryear theatricalism.” Even the favorable LAMirror-News review claimed that dialog during a lull in the battle, in which two minor characters call the Mexican soldiers “fine fighting men,” stretched the story’s credibility.
       The Alamo was nominated for seven Academy Awards: Best Picture; Best Supporting Actor (Chill Wills), Best Cinematography (Color), Best Film Editing, Best Musical Score, Best Song (Tiomkin and Paul Francis Webster’s “Green Leaves of Summer”) and Best Sound. In the months preceding the announcement of the nominations, controversy surrounded The Alamo as Birdwell and Wayne campaigned aggressively for the film in an unprecedented bid for votes. In Dec 1960 Birdwell bought a three-page ad in DV which listed excerpts from favorable comments about the film. He preceded the list by stating, “If men seeking the Presidency of the United States can be understood and admired for stating frankly and uninhibitedly ‘I want your vote,’" then the people of the film industry should not be "less timid in expressing their hopes and aspiration.” In a three-page Feb 1961 DV ad, Birdwell again appealed to Academy voters by asking, “When the motion picture industry’s epitaph is written—what will it say?,” and concluded with two pages of complimentary, large print quotes by directors George Stevens and John Ford.
       Critic Ivan Spear, in a Feb 1961 Box editorial, wrote: “If memory serves correctly, never before has there been so much tocsintitillating in efforts to win merely Academy nominations.” After the nominations were announced, columnist Dick Williams, who was expressing a sentiment shared by other critics, editorialized in a Mar 1961 issue of LAMirror-News , that “The impression is left that one’s proud sense of Americanism may be suspected if one does not vote for The Alamo ." The cover story of the 9 Mar 1961 issue of Close-up suggested that Birdwell was buying nominations. To these accusations, Birdwell published full-page ad rebuttals, addressing his detractors by name, in issues of both HR and DV .
       Meanwhile, as noted in an Apr 1961 NYT article, several ads were bought on behalf of Chill Wills, one listing stars he had “supported” in the past and testimonials of people from Texas, and another listing a roster of Academy members’ names. Incorporating Wills’s signature expression “cousins,” a term of affection spoken by many of the characters he played, an ad read: “Win, lose or draw you’re still my cousins and I love you all.” According to a 29 Mar 1961 HCN article, Groucho Marx responded with his own ad, in which he claimed delight at being Wills’s cousin, but his intention of voting for Sal Mineo (who was nominated for his performance in Exodus ). Another ad for Wills in a Mar 1961 HR issue stated that the The Alamo cast was “praying harder--than the real Texans prayed for their lives” for Wills to win. The various ads backfired on the actor after Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper, who was named in one ad, publicly repudiated him and Wayne took out ads in which he accused Wills of bad taste. In response, Wills’s press agent, W. S. “Bow Wow” Wojchiechowicz, took full responsibility, stating that he placed the ads without Wills’s prior knowledge.
       The expensive campaigning annoyed many people in the film industry. In a Mar 1961 Box article, Ivan Spear noted the “political and idealogical schisms within the film capital” prompted by Birdwell’s controversial publicity and concluded that “pictures could be brought into the winners’ circle through sheer weight of advertising dollars.” According to a 2 Apr 1961 NYT article that placed The Alamo at “the center of the strife,” “the Exodus people…riposted with full pages, exhorting fellow movie-makers to ‘Judge the picture—not the ads.’” The unprecedented season is considered by many historians to be the progenitor of future Oscar campaigns and the current inclination toward expensive electioneering for votes. When the Academy Awards ceremony aired on 17 Apr 1961, Best Picture was awarded to The Apartment (See Entry) and The Alamo was awarded only one Oscar, for Best Sound, which was received by Gordon Sawyer of Samuel Goldwyn SSD and Fred Hynes of Todd-AO SSD.
       Among the other honors bestowed on The Alamo , according to a Mar 1961 DV news item, was the Thomas Alva Edison Foundation Award for the best film serving the national interest. According to an Apr 1961 HR news item, the Daughters of the American Revolution awarded the film a bronze plaque for best historical film of 1960. According to modern sources, The Alamo was neither a critical nor commercial success on its first release, but had some success in later reissues and television screenings. Modern sources state that Wayne sold his interest to UA after the first run and that he claimed to have eventually recouped his money.
       The Brackettville set was used as a location site for other film and television Westerns for several years. A Nov 1960 LAMirror-News article reported that Richard Widmark and Linda Cristal, who portrayed Bowie and Flaca, respectively, soon returned to the Alamo set to film the 1961 Columbia production Two Rode Together (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1961-70 ), which was directed by Ford. An Oct 1965 HR ad and a Nov 1971 Var news item reported that the Alamo set was for sale. A modern source explained that Wayne, needing money, had asked the department store Sakowitz to sell it on consignment for $3,000,000, but when the property never sold, Shahan made a direct deal with Batjac to buy it for about $250,000. A 1998 Amarillo Sunday News-Globe article describing a two-day reunion held at Brackettville for surviving cast and crew members to celebrate what would have been Wayne’s ninety-first birthday reported that over one hundred films, videos and commercials had been shot at the set, which had become a tourist attraction.
       In 1993, a Feb LAT article announced that MGM/UA was releasing a laser disc of The Alamo , restoring the film to its original three hours and twenty-two minutes running time from a 70mm print discovered in Toronto. A Jul 2002 DV article prior to a DVD release of the film reported that the print was found by a Toronto projectionist in 1990. In the DV article, producer and film preservationist Robert A. Harris, who worked with M-G-M to restore the print, stated that the only remaining “roadshow” print was “essentially a director’s cut shot on 70mm.” The newly released disc of the restored print also contained the original trailer for the film and a documentary, which, among other features, included 1959 footage of The Alamo set during which Laurence Harvey, the Shakespearean actor who portrayed Travis and who died in 1973, orated from Richard II with a Southern twang.
       In addition to the titles mentioned above, other films on the subject of the Alamo include Disney’s 1954 Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier , starring Fess Parker; D. W. Griffith’s 1915 The Martyrs of the Alamo ; the 1926 Sunset Productions picture Davy Crockett at the Fall of the Alamo and Sunset and Columbia’s 1937 production Heroes of the Alamo (see entries in AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1911-20; 1921-30; 1931-40 ). For information about U-I’s 1953 The Man from the Alamo , which was directed by Budd Boetticher and starred Glenn Ford, See Entry. In 2004, director John Lee Hancock’s The Alamo was released, starring Billy Bob Thornton and Dennis Quaid.

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GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS
SOURCE CITATIONS
SOURCE
DATE
PAGE
Amarillo Sunday News-Globe
24 May 1998
p. 4A.
American Cinematographer
Nov 1960
pp. 662-63, 699-700, 702.
American Cinematographer
Apr 1961
p. 230.
Beverly Hills Citizen
9 Sep 1959.
---
Beverly Hills Citizen
12 Jan 1960.
---
Box Office
24 Oct 1960
p. 11.
Box Office
31 Oct 1960.
---
Box Office
13 Feb 1961.
---
Box Office
13 Mar 1961.
---
Box Office
26 Jun 1961.
---
Close-up
9 Mar 1961.
---
Cue
29 Oct 1960.
---
Daily Variety
5 Jul 1960
p. 1, 4.
Daily Variety
26 Aug 1960
p. 1, 5.
Daily Variety
5 Oct 1960.
---
Daily Variety
7 Oct 1960.
---
Daily Variety
23 Oct 1960.
---
Daily Variety
24 Oct 1960
p. 3.
Daily Variety
28 Oct 1960.
---
Daily Variety
27 Dec 1960.
---
Daily Variety
3 Feb 1961.
---
Daily Variety
7 Mar 1961.
---
Daily Variety
21 Mar 1961.
---
Daily Variety
27 Mar 1961.
---
Daily Variety
2 Jul 2002
p. 2, 13.
Film Daily
24 Oct 1960
p. 5.
Filmfacts
18 Nov 1960
p. 255-57.
Hollywood Citizen-News
26 Oct 1960.
---
Hollywood Citizen-News
27 Oct 1960.
---
Hollywood Citizen-News
21 Nov 1960.
---
Hollywood Citizen-News
29 Mar 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
29 Jul 1959.
---
Hollywood Reporter
5 Aug 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
7 Aug 1959
p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter
10 Aug 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
13 Aug 1959
p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter
14 Aug 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
28 Aug 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
1 Sep 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
2 Sep 1959.
---
Hollywood Reporter
4 Sep 1959
p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter
8 Sep 1959
p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter
9 Sep 1959
p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter
11 Sep 1959
p. 13.
Hollywood Reporter
14 Sep 1959
p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter
16 Sep 1959
p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter
30 Sep 1959
pp. 3-4.
Hollywood Reporter
29 Oct 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
1 Dec 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
2 Dec 1959
p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter
8 Dec 1959
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
11 Dec 1959
p. 23.
Hollywood Reporter
16 Dec 1959
p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter
15 Jun 1960
p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter
21 Jun 1960
p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter
9 Aug 1960
p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter
23 Aug 1960
p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter
24 Oct 1960
p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter
4 Nov 1960
p. 1, 4.
Hollywood Reporter
1 Feb 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
7 Mar 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
24 Mar 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
27 Mar 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
21 Apr 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
28 Jul 1961.
---
Hollywood Reporter
17 Oct 1965.
---
Hollywood Tribune
13 Oct 1960.
---
LAMirror-News
20 Oct 1959
Section II, p. 6-7.
LAMirror-News
21 Oct 1959.
---
LAMirror-News
22 Oct 1960.
---
LAMirror-News
25 Oct 1960.
---
LAMirror-News
27 Oct 1960.
---
LAMirror-News
4 Nov 1960
Section I, p. 8.
LAMirror-News
7 Nov 1960.
---
LAMirror-News
15 Mar 1961.
---
LAMirror-News
30 Mar 1961.
---
LAMirror-News
20 Sep 1961.
---
Life
4 Jul 1960.
---
Life
19 Sep 1960.
---
Limelight
27 Oct 1960.
---
Limelight
16 Mar 1961
pp. 1-2.
Los Angeles Examiner
27 Oct 1960.
---
Los Angeles Examiner
20 Nov 1960.
---
Los Angeles Herald Express
6 Apr 1961.
---
Los Angeles Times
16 Dec 1959.
---
Los Angeles Times
29 Aug 1960
Section IV, p. 10.
Los Angeles Times
17 Sep 1960.
---
Los Angeles Times
22 Oct 1960.
---
Los Angeles Times
23 Oct 1960.
---
Los Angeles Times
26 Oct 1960.
---
Los Angeles Times
27 Oct 1960
Section III, p. 13.
Los Angeles Times
6 Mar 1961.
---
Los Angeles Times
30 Mar 1961.
---
Los Angeles Times
26 Feb 1993.
---
Mad
Jun 1961.
---
Motion Picture Herald
16 Jan 1960
pp. 26-27.
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest
5 Nov 1960
p. 907.
New York Times
15 Jul 1951.
---
New York Times
4 Oct 1959.
---
New York Times
27 Oct 1960
p. 45.
New York Times
6 Nov 1960.
---
New York Times
2 Apr 1961.
---
New Yorker
5 Nov 1960.
---
Newsweek
31 Oct 1960.
---
Newsweek
8 May 1961.
---
Time
7 Nov 1960.
---
Variety
23 Sep 1959.
---
Variety
21 Oct 1959.
---
Variety
26 Oct 1960
p. 6.
Variety
16 Nov 1960.
---
Variety
8 Feb 1961.
---
Variety
23 Mar 1961
p. 1, 4.
Variety
3 Nov 1971.
---
CAST
PRODUCTION CREDITS
NAME
PARENT COMPANY
PRODUCTION TEXT
A Batjac Production
DISTRIBUTION COMPANY
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
DIRECTORS
Asst dir
Asst dir
2d unit dir
PRODUCERS
Prod
Assoc prod
WRITER
Orig scr, Orig scr
PHOTOGRAPHY
Dir of photog
ART DIRECTOR
Art dir
FILM EDITOR
Film ed
SET DECORATORS
Set dec
Prop master
COSTUMES
Cost
MUSIC
Mus comp and cond
Mus ed
Mus rec
Mus rec
SOUND
Sd rec supv
Sd rec supv
Sd ed
VISUAL EFFECTS
Spec eff
MAKEUP
Makeup supv
Hairstylist
PRODUCTION MISC
Tech supv
Tech supv
Unit mgr
Prod mgr
Asst to prod
Casting dir
Casting assoc dir
John Wayne's aide
Pub
Tech adv
Tech adv
Horse wrangler
SOURCES
SONGS
"Green Leaves of Summer," "Tennessee Babe" and "Here's to the Ladies," music by Dimitri Tiomkin, lyrics by Paul Francis Webster
"Eyes of Texas," music and lyrics by John Sinclair, courtesy of Students' Association, University of Texas.
DETAILS
Release Date:
27 October 1960
Premiere Information:
World premiere in San Antonio, TX: 24 October 1960
Los Angeles and New York openings: 26 October 1960
Production Date:
9 September--15 December 1959
addl filming August 1960 at Samuel Goldwyn Studios
Copyright Claimant:
Alamo Co.
Copyright Date:
24 October 1960
Copyright Number:
LP18690
Physical Properties:
Sound
Westrex Recording System
Color
Technicolor
Widescreen/ratio
Todd-AO
Duration(in mins):
190 or 192
Country:
United States
Language:
English
PCA No:
19635
Passed by NBR:
No
SYNOPSIS

In 1836, Texas is part of Mexico, and the settlers of that region are discontent with the tyrannical rule of Gen. Santa Anna. As Gen. Sam Houston hastens to assemble a Texan army, Santa Anna is heading north with several thousand soldiers to defeat the rebellion. To gain more time, Houston orders Col. William Barret Travis to take command of the Alamo, a fort in a crumbling mission near the village of San Antonio de Bexar, through which Santa Anna’s men must pass. Houston hopes that Travis and his twenty-seven “regular” army men will stall the enemy for as long as possible with the assistance of rancher Col. James Bowie and his three hundred Texas volunteers. The hard-drinking and independent Bowie, who has extensive landholdings to protect, and the aristocratic and arrogant Travis are a poorly matched team and antagonism between the two officers quickly grows. Although Juan Seguin, a respected community leader, reports that Santa Anna is closer than they realize, Travis refutes the information and repeatedly lies to the men about the danger of their situation. Believing that most men have no capacity to act for reasons of honor, Travis tells his confidant, Capt. Almeron Dickinson, that the men would desert their posts if they knew the truth. Meanwhile, Col. David Crockett, a former senator, and his rowdy, but loyal Tennessee backwoods sharpshooters, arrive in Bexar and head straight for the cantina. Travis seeks out Davy, and is surprised to learn that the reputed “illiterate country bumpkin” is an eloquent, deep thinker and is sensitive to the Texans’ plight. Aware that Santa Anna’s regime forbids Texans economic rights, ... +


In 1836, Texas is part of Mexico, and the settlers of that region are discontent with the tyrannical rule of Gen. Santa Anna. As Gen. Sam Houston hastens to assemble a Texan army, Santa Anna is heading north with several thousand soldiers to defeat the rebellion. To gain more time, Houston orders Col. William Barret Travis to take command of the Alamo, a fort in a crumbling mission near the village of San Antonio de Bexar, through which Santa Anna’s men must pass. Houston hopes that Travis and his twenty-seven “regular” army men will stall the enemy for as long as possible with the assistance of rancher Col. James Bowie and his three hundred Texas volunteers. The hard-drinking and independent Bowie, who has extensive landholdings to protect, and the aristocratic and arrogant Travis are a poorly matched team and antagonism between the two officers quickly grows. Although Juan Seguin, a respected community leader, reports that Santa Anna is closer than they realize, Travis refutes the information and repeatedly lies to the men about the danger of their situation. Believing that most men have no capacity to act for reasons of honor, Travis tells his confidant, Capt. Almeron Dickinson, that the men would desert their posts if they knew the truth. Meanwhile, Col. David Crockett, a former senator, and his rowdy, but loyal Tennessee backwoods sharpshooters, arrive in Bexar and head straight for the cantina. Travis seeks out Davy, and is surprised to learn that the reputed “illiterate country bumpkin” is an eloquent, deep thinker and is sensitive to the Texans’ plight. Aware that Santa Anna’s regime forbids Texans economic rights, Davy has also guessed the unpublicized plans to create a Republic of Texas. Unknown to his men, who think they are out for adventure, Davy has brought them to Bexar to investigate the situation and possibly convince them to join the fight. Davy soon falls in love with Flaca, a Mexican woman whose family was killed by Santa Anna and who is being pressured to marry Emil Sande, a local merchant who has curried favor with the Mexican general. Although she refuses Davy’s gallant offer of help, she tells him about the cache of ammunition Emil has hidden for Santa Anna in the basement of the village church. During the night Davy, Bowie and their men find the supplies. When Emil discovers Davy and the others and tries to kill them, Davy throws Bowie’s knife at Emil, killing him. Davy and Flaca enjoy a brief romance, but Davy sends her north to safety, realizing they may never see each other again. Travis keeps up the morale in the fort by reporting that Capt. Jim Fannin is on his way to the Alamo with more soldiers. Believing that staying cornered inside the fort is suicide, Bowie unsuccessfully tries to convince both Travis and, later, Davy that the best way to defend the Alamo is by a “cut, slash and run” approach out in the open. Davy convinces his men to fight for the Alamo by reading them a letter, purportedly written by Santa Anna, ordering the Tennesseeans to leave. Offended, the men stubbornly refuse to take orders from the Mexican general and vow to stay, after which Davy admits that he wrote the letter himself, but it is what Santa Anna would want. Soon after, a courier from Santa Anna arrives outside the fort, and from there, proclaims a message ordering the “occupiers” of the fort to relinquish all ammunition and leave. Before the courier can finish the message, Travis uses his glowing cigar to light the cannon. Startled by the cannon fire, the Mexican halts his reading and retreats in a dignified manner. Dryly, Bowie comments to Davy that Travis “knows the short way to start a war.” Although Mexican soldiers are taking positions in front of the fort, Travis predicts that fighting will not begin until Santa Anna, the heavy artillery and food wagons arrive, which will take several days. Believing the situation is hopeless, Bowie decides to leave with his men. However, when Capt. James Butler Bonham arrives from another camp, reporting that Fannin is coming with one thousand men, Bowie decides to stay, unaware that Bonham has been ordered by Travis to lie about the number of men accompanying Fannin. In private, Bonham reports to Travis that only five hundred men are expected. A quarrel between Bowie and Travis escalates into plans for a duel after Bowie takes his men out on patrol without Travis’ permission, but Davy convinces them to postpone their confrontation until after the war. Confronted by Davy, Travis admits that his orders are simply to buy time for Houston. Believing that the mission is worthwhile and knowing that Bowie plans to leave with his men in the morning, Davy gets him drunk, causing him to sleep late. The next day, Seguin sneaks into the fort with a few more men, bolstering morale. When a message is delivered directly to Bowie, bypassing Travis, the commander accuses Bowie of more insubordination. However, Travis apologizes after he learns that the message reports the death of Bowie’s wife. When the doctor reports low rations and an outbreak of dysentery caused by tainted water, Travis orders a night-time raid of the Mexicans, from whom they rustle several steer. They also steal a good horse for a young soldier, Smitty, to ride to Houston’s encampment to report their situation. When Santa Anna arrives, he allows the evacuation of the women and children, but Mrs. Dickinson insists that she and her young child will stay. After the rest of the noncombatants are safely away, shooting commences. The first Alamo casualty is Davy’s friend Parson, inspiring Davy to pray that his men are successful, and if not, will be remembered as good men. At the end of the first day’s battle, the Alamo men have shot many of the Mexicans, but suffer fifty casualties, twenty-eight of whom are dead. The men also receive news that Fannin’s company was ambushed, and consequently no further help will be coming. When Davy expresses a desire to leave, Travis speaks truthfully to the men, telling them that they will not be able to hold the fort for long, but they have given Houston ten extra days to prepare for Santa Anna. Giving his blessing, Travis opens the gate and claims there is no dishonor in leaving. Davy and Bowie begin to lead their men out, but then Bowie gets off his horse and stands next to Travis. The others follow suit and soon all decide to perservere. After nightfall, Smitty delivers his written message to Houston and, anxious to return to his comrades, refuses both food and sleep. Upon reading the message, Houston, who is helpless to assist Travis, hopes that their sacrifice will be remembered. At the Alamo, the sleepless men talk about their belief in the hereafter. Bowie frees his aged slave Jethro and urges him to sneak out and make his way north, but Jethro chooses to stay. During the fighting the next day, Bowie is shot and taken to the infirmary. As the enemy breaches the fort’s walls, Travis is killed. Davy is stabbed, but before dying, sets fire to the ammunition to prevent the Mexicans from taking it. Near the end of the battle, Mexican soldiers entering the infirmary are shot by Bowie as he fires guns with both hands. Jethro throws himself over his former master to protect him, but both are slaughtered. Only Mrs. Dickinson, her child and a young black boy are given a burro and allowed to leave without harm. Smitty arrives, but from a distance he sees that he is too late to help.
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Legend
Viewed by AFI
Partially Viewed
Offscreen Credit
Name Occurs Before Title
AFI Life Achievement Award

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