A Single Man (2009)

R | 99 mins | Drama | 11 December 2009

THIS TITLE IS OUTSIDE THE AFI CATALOG OF FEATURE FILMS (1893-1993)
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HISTORY

A Single Man opens with the credits over images of “George Falconer,” played by Colin Firth, drifting, underwater, nude, then struggling to the surface as the sound of a car crash is heard. These are images and sounds from George’s dream. The dream continues as George walks across snow to the car crash scene where Jim and one of their dogs lie dead. George lays on the ground and kisses Jim on the mouth. The opening credits feature the top four cast members and several above-the-line crew members listed before the title. Although the date of the events is listed onscreen as 30 Nov 1962, George twice hears a radio speech by President John F. Kennedy on the Cuban Missile Crisis. In actuality, Kennedy gave radio and television speeches regarding the situation in late Oct and early Nov 1962, but none at the end of Nov 1962. Flashback scenes of George and Jim's life together appear throughout A Single Man and George is heard sporadically in voiceover. Also heard throughout the film is the sound of George’s heartbeat. During scenes that have emotional significance for George, the onscreen color is amplified, which many film reviewers noted was distracting. The sequence where George explains his relationship with “Charley” (Julianne Moore) to “Jim” (Matthew Goode) is presented in black and white. An enormous poster on the side of a building dominates the scene where George speaks with “Carlos” (Jon Kortajarena). The poster depicts the upper half of the face of actress Janet Leigh as the main character in the 1960 Paramount production, Psycho , directed by Alfred Hitchcock (see ... More Less

A Single Man opens with the credits over images of “George Falconer,” played by Colin Firth, drifting, underwater, nude, then struggling to the surface as the sound of a car crash is heard. These are images and sounds from George’s dream. The dream continues as George walks across snow to the car crash scene where Jim and one of their dogs lie dead. George lays on the ground and kisses Jim on the mouth. The opening credits feature the top four cast members and several above-the-line crew members listed before the title. Although the date of the events is listed onscreen as 30 Nov 1962, George twice hears a radio speech by President John F. Kennedy on the Cuban Missile Crisis. In actuality, Kennedy gave radio and television speeches regarding the situation in late Oct and early Nov 1962, but none at the end of Nov 1962. Flashback scenes of George and Jim's life together appear throughout A Single Man and George is heard sporadically in voiceover. Also heard throughout the film is the sound of George’s heartbeat. During scenes that have emotional significance for George, the onscreen color is amplified, which many film reviewers noted was distracting. The sequence where George explains his relationship with “Charley” (Julianne Moore) to “Jim” (Matthew Goode) is presented in black and white. An enormous poster on the side of a building dominates the scene where George speaks with “Carlos” (Jon Kortajarena). The poster depicts the upper half of the face of actress Janet Leigh as the main character in the 1960 Paramount production, Psycho , directed by Alfred Hitchcock (see below). The score, written by Abel Korzeniowski and Shigeru Umebayashi, features a distinctive theme that echoes the Psycho score written by Bernard Hermann. The DV review noted the period and mood similarities between A Single Man and the AMC produced television series Mad Men (2007-2009), also set in the early 1960s. The reviewer pointed out Charley's fashionable pink Sobranie of London “Cocktail” cigarettes, which were also used in the series, and the uncredited voice-over appearance of Mad Men 's star, John Hamm, as the voice of “Harold Ackerley.” A Single Man was filmed in and about Santa Monica, Pasadena and Los Angeles, as noted in closing credits.
       A Single Man marked the directorial debut of Tom Ford, a fashion designer who had successfully headed both Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent fashion houses in the 1990s. According to a 3 Dec 2009 NYT article, after leaving the fashion industry in 2004, Ford purchased the rights to the Isherwood novel in 2006 and decided to rewrite a script by David Scearce (who is credited onscreen as co-writer). In the article, Ford admitted to revising the script fifteen times in less than two years. Unable to secure financing from studios uneasy with the gay storyline, Ford financed the film personally. In the NYT article and a 6 Dec 2009 LAT piece, Ford revealed that he used several personal experiences in the film, including George’s admission to “Kenny” that he shaved his eyebrow off while under the influence of mescaline. Ford, who is openly gay, acknowledged that having George consider shooting himself inside a sleeping bag in order not to soil the wall and his careful laying out the suit in which he intends to be buried, were details taken from the suicide of a family member. In both articles, Ford states that he had always envisioned Firth in the role of George, but when the actor had other commitments, cast another actor in the role. When that actor departed due to scheduling conflicts, Firth, who had become available, took the role.
       A Single Man opens after George’s dream, with the opening line from the novel, spoken in voiceover by George: “Waking up begins with saying am and now .” The film differs from the “stream-of-consciousness” style novel in various ways, primarily in Ford and Scearce’s addition of having George contemplate suicide throughout the single day. In the novel Jim dies in a car accident while riding with a former girlfriend with whom he had a relationship similar to that of George and Charley, and George visits the ailing woman in the hospital. Although George’s age is never stated in the film, in the novel he is close to sixty. As shown in the film, George dies, unexpectedly, from heart failure at the end of the novel.
       A Single Man was selected by AFI as one of the ten Movies of the Year for 2009. Firth received the Best Actor award at the Venice Film Festival and an Academy Award nomination for Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role. The film also received Golden Globe nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture-Drama (Firth), Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture-Drama (Moore) and Best Original Score. The SAG nominated Firth for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role. More Less

SOURCE CITATIONS
SOURCE
DATE
PAGE
Daily Variety
29 Oct 2008.
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Daily Variety
16 Sep 2009.
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Daily Variety
10 Dec 2009.
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Hollywood Reporter
18 Sep 2009
p. 49.
Hollywood Reporter
20 Nov 2009.
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Los Angeles Times
30 Oct 2008.
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Los Angeles Times
6 Dec 2009.
---
New York Times
3 Dec 2009.
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New York Times
11 Dec 2009.
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Time
7 Dec 2009.
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CAST
PRODUCTION CREDITS
NAME
PARENT COMPANY
PRODUCTION TEXT
In association with Artina Films
DISTRIBUTION COMPANY
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
DIRECTORS
Dir
1st asst dir
2d asst dir
2d 2d asst dir
Addl 2d asst dir
PRODUCERS
Prod
Co-prod
WRITERS
Wrt for the screen by
Wrt for the screen by
PHOTOGRAPHY
Dir of photog
1st asst cam
2d asst cam
1st asst B cam
2d asst B cam
Cam loader
Steadicam op
Librahead tech
Underwater cam op
Underwater 1st asst cam
Underwater 2d asst cam
Video assist op
Gaffer
Best boy elec
Rigging elec
Lighting tech
Lighting tech
Lighting tech
Lighting tech
Lighting tech
Lighting tech
Lighting tech
Night lighting tech
Night lighting tech
Key grip
Best boy grip
Dolly grip
Still photog
Dollies/cranes
Dollies/cranes
Grip and elec equip provided by
Grip and elec equip provided by
Night lights provided by
Film processing
ART DIRECTORS
Prod des
Art dir
Art dept asst
FILM EDITORS
1st asst ed
Avid support
SET DECORATORS
Set dec
Key set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Leadman
Set dec buyer
Addl buyer
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
On set dresser
Prop master
Asst prop master
Asst props
Asst props
Props prod asst
Set painter
Set painter
Painter
Painter
Const coord
Lead scenic
Laborer foreman
Greensman
Greensman
Greensman
Greensman
Greensman
Greensman
Greensman
Stand by greensman
COSTUMES
Cost des
Cost supv
Asst cost des
Key cost
Key set cost
Cost
Cost prod asst
Seamstress
Cutter/fitter
Wardrobe for Colin Firth provided by
MUSIC
Orig score
Mus supv
Mus consultant
Mus ed, Post prod
Mus ed, Prod prod
Score prod by
Score prod by
Comp asst
Mus score mixer
Orch contractor
Orch contractor
Mus copyist
Mus copyist
Featured violinist
Featured violinist
Featured cellist
Featured pianist
Warner Bros. stage crew
Warner Bros. stage crew
Warner Bros. stage crew
Warner Bros. stage crew
Protools op
Mus mixed at
Asst eng
SOUND
Prod sd mixer
Boom op
Utility sd
Utility sd
Post prod sd
Sd des, Wildfire Post
Supv sd ed, Wildfire Post
Sd eff ed, Wildfire Post
Foley ed, Wildfire Post
Asst sd ed, Wildfire Post
Re-rec mixer, Wildfire Post
Mix rec, Wildfire Post
ADR mixer, Wildfire Post
ADR rec, Wildfire Post
Foley artist, Wildfire Post
Foley artist, Wildfire Post
Foley mixer, Wildfire Post
Foley mixer, Wildfire Post
VISUAL EFFECTS
Spec eff coord
Spec eff office coord
Spec eff foreman
Spec eff tech
Spec eff tech
Snow eff
Digital visual eff by
Vis eff supv, Engine Room Visual Arts
Visual eff exec prod, Engine Room Visual Arts
Visual eff ed, Engine Room Visual Arts
Sr digital compositor, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Digital artist, Engine Room Visual Arts
Engine Room controller, Engine Room Visual Arts
Engine Room coord, Engine Room Visual Arts
Title graphics
MAKEUP
Dept head make-up artist
Key make-up artist
Make-up artist to Julianne Moore
Dept head hair stylist
Key hair stylist
Key hair stylist
Hairstylist
Hair stylist
Hair stylist to Julianne Moore
PRODUCTION MISC
Casting assoc
Extras casting by
Extras casting assoc
Extras casting assoc
Unit prod mgr
Creative consultant
Creative consultant
Prod supv
Scr supv
Prod coord
Asst prod coord
Prod secy
Office prod asst
Office prod asst
Office prod asst
Asst to Tom Ford
Asst to Chris Weitz
Asst to Andrew Miano
Asst to Robert Salerno
Loc mgr
Key asst loc mgr
Key asst loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Set medic
Const medic
Const medic
Transportation capt
Transportation co-captain
Picture vehicle coord/Transportation co-captain
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Catering
Catering
Asst cook
Asst cook
Craft service
Asst craft service
Asst craft service
Studio teacher
Studio teacher
Dialect coach
Marine coord
Marine crew
Marine crew
Marine crew
Marine crew
Marine crew
Prod accountant
1st asst accountant
2d asst accountant
Accounting clerk
Post prod accountant
Asst post prod accountant
Public relations
Public relations
Public relations
Post prod supv
Post prod coord
Water tank provided by
VP feature sales, Company 3
Prod insurance
Prod attorney
Clearances provided by
Mus legal and clearance services by
Mus legal and clearance services by
STAND INS
Stand-in
Stand-in
Stunt coord
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Kenny body double
COLOR PERSONNEL
Digital intermediate by
Co3 exec prod, Company 3
DI prod, Company 3
DI colorist, Company 3
On-line ed, Company 3
Digital dirt removal, Company 3
DI asst, Company 3
DI asst, Company 3
DI asst, Company 3
SOURCES
LITERARY
Based on the novel A Single Man by Christopher Isherwood (New York, 1964).
MUSIC
"Moon Over Manhattan," composed by Robert Etoll courtesy of Megatrax Music
"Scene D'Amour," composed by Bernard Herrmann
"Green Onions," written by Steve Cropper, Al Jackson, Jr., Booker T. Jones and Lewis Steinberg, performed by Booker T. & The MG's courtesy of Atlantic Recording Corp by arrangement with Warner Music Group Film & TV Licensing.
SONGS
"Baudelaire," written and performed by Serge Gainsbourg, courtesy of Mercury France under license from Universal Music Enterprises
"Cyber Cafe," written and performed by Norman Harris, courtesy of Manhattan Production Music
"Everyone Can See," written by Ken Morrison and Mark Reiman performed by Gail Pettis, courtesy of Crucial Music Corporation
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SONGS
"Baudelaire," written and performed by Serge Gainsbourg, courtesy of Mercury France under license from Universal Music Enterprises
"Cyber Cafe," written and performed by Norman Harris, courtesy of Manhattan Production Music
"Everyone Can See," written by Ken Morrison and Mark Reiman performed by Gail Pettis, courtesy of Crucial Music Corporation
"Ebben? Ne andro lontana' from 'La Wally,'" written by Alfredo Catalani, performed by Miriam Gauci, courtesy of Naxos by arrangement with Source/Q
"Stormy Weather," written by Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler, performed by Etta James, courtesy of Geffen Records under license from Universal Music Enterprises
"Blue Moon," written by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, performed by Jo Stafford, courtesy of JSP Records.
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DETAILS
Release Date:
11 December 2009
Premiere Information:
Venice International Film Festival screening: 11 September 2009: AFI Fest: 5 November 2009
Production Date:
3 November--5 December 2008
Copyright Claimant:
Fade to Black Productions, Inc.
Copyright Date:
2009
Copyright Number:
Physical Properties:
Sound
Dolby Digital in selected theatres
Color
deluxe, with b&w seq
Lenses/Prints
Kodak Motion Picture Film
Duration(in mins):
99
MPAA Rating:
R
Country:
United States
Language:
English
PCA No:
45427
Passed by NBR:
No
SYNOPSIS

In Autumn 1962 in Los Angeles, college professor and British ex-patriot George Falconer awakens from an unsettling dream about the death of his lover, Jim, which occurred in a single car crash eight months earlier. Despite the passage of time, George continues to feel deeply depressed and continually recalls moments of his life with Jim, such as their opposite moods in the morning and Jim’s delight in their two fox terriers, one of which died with him in the accident. After rising and dressing meticulously, George has breakfast and recalls Jim’s comfort with his sexuality, such as when he boldly kissed George before one of the large windows in the architecturally striking modern home that Jim himself designed. After breakfast, George reflects that since Jim’s death he has not been able to see a future for himself but decides that this day will be different. As George’s phone rings, he glances at it and remembers the rainy winter afternoon when he sat reading, expecting a call from Jim, who had left two days earlier to visit his family in Colorado: Upon answering the phone, George is addressed by Jim’s cousin, Harold Ackerly, who informs him that Jim died in an accident the previous evening. Ackerly explains that although Jim’s parents did not want to contact George, he felt George should be told. Stunned, George asks about funeral services, but when he indicates he will attend, Acklerly informs him that the service is for family-only. George inquires if the dogs were with Jim and Ackerly says that only one was found dead at the scene and he has no knowledge of ... +


In Autumn 1962 in Los Angeles, college professor and British ex-patriot George Falconer awakens from an unsettling dream about the death of his lover, Jim, which occurred in a single car crash eight months earlier. Despite the passage of time, George continues to feel deeply depressed and continually recalls moments of his life with Jim, such as their opposite moods in the morning and Jim’s delight in their two fox terriers, one of which died with him in the accident. After rising and dressing meticulously, George has breakfast and recalls Jim’s comfort with his sexuality, such as when he boldly kissed George before one of the large windows in the architecturally striking modern home that Jim himself designed. After breakfast, George reflects that since Jim’s death he has not been able to see a future for himself but decides that this day will be different. As George’s phone rings, he glances at it and remembers the rainy winter afternoon when he sat reading, expecting a call from Jim, who had left two days earlier to visit his family in Colorado: Upon answering the phone, George is addressed by Jim’s cousin, Harold Ackerly, who informs him that Jim died in an accident the previous evening. Ackerly explains that although Jim’s parents did not want to contact George, he felt George should be told. Stunned, George asks about funeral services, but when he indicates he will attend, Acklerly informs him that the service is for family-only. George inquires if the dogs were with Jim and Ackerly says that only one was found dead at the scene and he has no knowledge of the other. After hanging up, George sits shocked for some moments, before bolting outside through the pouring rain across the street to the house of his best friend and fellow ex-patriot, Charlotte. In the present, George ignores the telephone and instead spends some moments in the bathroom, rereading portions of the novel he has assigned his college class. Outside, boisterous cries attract his attention and George peers out the window at his neighbors, the Strunks, who have three young, rambunctious children. As the phone rings again, George sighs, knowing that it is Charlotte, who goes by Charley, and reluctantly answers, agreeing to join her for dinner that evening. George then retrieves an empty revolver from his desk and places it in his briefcase before greeting his housekeeper, Alva. When Alva observes that George looks unwell, he assures her that he feels fine, then surprises her by thanking her for all her hard work and kissing her cheek. As he drives down the street moments later, George spots young Tom Strunk walking, his sister Jennifer jumping up and the youngest, Christopher, who is pointing a toy rifle at him. Responding in kind, George cocks his hand like a pistol and points it at Christopher, while his mother Susan waves. George arrives at the college, unheeding of the radio report of President John F. Kennedy’s speech about Russian missile bases in Cuba. In the English Department office, George startles one of the secretaries by complimenting her hairstyle and perfume. In the faculty lounge, a colleague, Grant, comments on George’s ashen appearance, but George ignores him and reflects that his students do not seem remotely interested in what he teaches. Despite George’s remark, Grant advises him to create a safe bomb shelter and warns him against sharing it with strangers. Later, in his class lecture, George answers a question about whether an author was anti-semitic by explaining that minorities are everywhere, mostly invisible to their societies. George adds that when minorities are perceived as a threat, they promote fear which, in turn, leads to their persecution. Listening intensely to George’s oration is student Kenny Potter and his some-time girlfriend, Lois. After class, Kenny approaches George and asks why George does not speak frankly more often. Admitting that he suspects that his comments were lost on the class, George is amused when Kenny asks if he has ever gotten high. Pleased when George opens up a little, Kenny playfully buys the professor a small pencil sharpener when they reach the faculty building. Back in his office, George cleans out his files and telephones Charley to ask what to bring that night and she requests Tanqueray gin. In his car, George is about to pull the revolver out of his briefcase when Kenny startles him by knocking on the window. Kenny asks if George would care to meet for a drink sometime, as he appears to need a friend. After politely evading Kenny’s request, George drives to his bank where he empties his safe deposit box of insurance papers, his mother’s wedding ring and a picture of Jim nude. Looking at the photo, George recalls the two men sunning on a rocky beach: Jim asks George about Charley and he explains that they knew each other in London years earlier and admits to sleeping with her a few times. Puzzled, Jim asks why George is with him if he sleeps with women. George replies that he falls in love with men and is in love with Jim. In the present in the bank lobby, young Jennifer Strunk approaches George to show him a jar with her pet scorpion that she has named “Ben-Hur” because the creature kills everything placed in the “arena” of his jar. Confiding that Mr. Strunk mentioned that George should be placed in the arena because he is “light in his loafers,” Jennifer admits being baffled as George never wears loafers. Susan approaches to retrieve Jennifer and invites George to a party that evening, but George explains that he has a previous engagement. From the bank, George proceeds to a gun shop where he buys bullets for the revolver, which the young clerk admires as an antique. In the parking lot, over which a huge movie billboard of a woman’s frightened eyes loom, George notices a fox terrier in a car and walks over to admire it as the owner, a young woman, returns. George pets the dog, and, smelling the top of its head, says they are a rarely seen breed. After the woman and dog drive away, George buys a bottle of Tanqueray but exiting the store, collides with a handsome young man. Apologizing that the shattered gin bottle has ruined the young man’s pack of cigarettes, George buys a new bottle and fresh cigarettes. The young man, with a heavy Spanish accent, introduces himself as Carlos and offers George a cigarette. In perfect Spanish, George remarks on Carlos’ beauty and flawless face. Delighted that George speaks his language, Carlos is then startled when George abruptly presses a twenty dollar bill into his hand. Believing that they now have an arrangement, Carlos follows George to his car. Embarrassed, George insists that Carlos is mistaken, but agrees to smoke another cigarette. Carlos relates that he is from Madrid and came to Los Angeles on the promise of an acquaintance to get him into movies, but has been held back by his heavy accent. Noting George’s sad demeanor, Carlos observes that he appears to need a friend. Back home at dusk, George hears the boisterous party at the Strunks as he carefully lays out his suit, instructions for his burial, insurance papers and a letter to Charley. George then recalls one evening a week before Jim’s trip to Colorado: Sitting together on the sofa reading, the two men bicker pleasantly about who should turn the record on the phonograph. Jim then admires their dogs, who live in the moment and are always content, and admits that if he died right then, he would die happily. In the present, George takes the revolver and sitting up in bed, places the barrel in his mouth, experimenting with various angles and positions. Dissatisfied and concerned about making a mess, George moves into the shower. After slipping unexpectedly down the wall, he returns to his bed, bringing along a sleeping bag in which he zips himself up, only to be interrupted by the telephone. Knowing that it is Charley, he answers, declaring that he has the gin and is on his way. Already somewhat drunk, Charley greets George warmly at the door in an elegant evening gown and with a fashionable hairstyle and announces that she is cooking for him. Airily referring to George as “Geo,” Charley insists they drink and smoke their troubles away, but expresses serious concern over George’s pallor. Waving away her concern, George informs Charley that he has decided to let go of the past completely and forever. After dinner, Charley asks George if he would return to London with her, as she has grown disappointed with America, but he refuses, saying he might consider it if Jim were alive. Charley then puts a slow, romantic song on the phonograph and she and George dance. Sensing his discomfort with her clinging manner, Charley hastens to change the record to a sassy jazz piece and the two playfully do the “twist.” Laying down on the floor afterward, George accepts one of Charley’s chic colored cigarettes and says he stopped smoking because Jim did not like it. Sighing, Charley asks if he ever considers that she and George might have had a real relationship, with marriage and children. When Charley dismisses George and Jim’s relationship as “not real,” George explodes in anger, declaring that their sixteen years together were real and not a substitute for anything. After George scorns Charley’s own failed nine-year marriage, she apologizes, admitting she is envious because she never had a relationship like his with Jim. Returning to their familiar bantering, George encourages Charley to do whatever she wants, but she admits returning to London would be a sign of personal failure. Declining another cocktail, George announces his departure and after disengaging a clutching Charley, lightly kisses her goodnight. Returning home under the bright light of the full moon, George takes up the revolver and recalls meeting Jim: Just after the end of WWII, outside of the Starboard Side bar, George makes eye contact with a handsome naval officer, Jim. The men chat outside for some time and when it begins to rain, hurry inside together. In the present, George lowers the gun from his forehead and wanders to another room for a drink. Hearing a noise in the yard he steps outside, then decides to go to the Starboard Side, which is nearby. Moments after he arrives at the bar, George sees Kenny enter, and realizing that it was him outside of George’s house, joins him in a booth. Kenny insists that he was just riding his bike in the neighborhood, then tells George that although he believes what George teaches has merit, he is discouraged by the emphasis on the past and cannot look forward to a future which may include a nuclear holocaust. The men toast to the present and death, which everyone has in common. When Kenny admits he is frequently lonely and feels cut off from others, George acknowledges that connecting with another human being is the thing that makes life worth living. Kenny then invites George to go for a midnight swim in the nearby ocean and George agrees. Jogging to the beach, the men strip and leap into water where they frolic for some moments until George grows disoriented in the strong surf and swallows some water, forcing Kenny to pull him to shore. They return to George’s home and, noting the sleeping bag still on George’s bed, Kenny asks if he is going camping. Offering to bandage a small abrasion on George’s forehead, Kenny opens a drawer and sees the nude photo of Jim. After an awkward moment with George, Kenny takes a shower and when he returns, praises the house design. George, noticing his watch has stopped, asks Kenny why he came to see him and the young man admits feeling concern for him. Assuring Kenny that he is fine, George then dozes off. When he awakens, George finds himself in bed and, rising, finds Kenny asleep on the sofa, where he has hidden George’s revolver. Smiling, George gently takes the gun, removes the bullets and locks it in his desk. Opening the screen door, George admires the full moon and the night air, then returns to the living room where he burns the letter to Charley. Going to his bedroom, George appreciates feeling a few moments of clarity about life when he abruptly feels a sharp pain in his left arm and collapses. As George lies on the floor dying, Jim comes to him and kisses his check before withdrawing into the dark. +

Legend
Viewed by AFI
Partially Viewed
Offscreen Credit
Name Occurs Before Title
AFI Life Achievement Award
The American Film Institute is grateful to Sir Paul Getty KBE and the Sir Paul Getty KBE Estate for their dedication to the art of the moving image and their support for the AFI Catalog of Feature Films and without whose support AFI would not have been able to achieve this historical landmark in this epic scholarly endeavor.