The Wiz (1978)

G | 133 mins | Musical | 25 October 1978

Director:

Sidney Lumet

Writer:

Joel Schumacher

Producer:

Rob Cohen

Cinematographer:

Oswald Morris

Editor:

Dede Allen

Production Designer:

Tony Walton

Production Companies:

Motown, Universal Pictures
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HISTORY

A title card reads: “ The Wiz from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum.”
       End credit acknowledgements read: “Emerald City fashions: Our thanks to: Scott Barrie, Bill Blass, Stephen Burrows' World, Oscar de la Renta, Halston, Kamali, Zoran, Kolodzie, Ralph Lauren, Mary McFadden, Alixandre Paris, Halston for Ben Kahn Furs, Fernando Sanchez.”
       The picture was: “Filmed entirely at the Astoria Studios and on location in New York City. Amusement park sequence filmed at Cyclone Roller Coaster at Astroland Park, Coney Island.”
       The Tony Award-winning Broadway musical version of The Wiz opened 5 Jan 1975 at the Majestic Theatre, where it played until 25 May 1977. The Wiz moved over to the Broadway Theatre and played through 28 Jan 1979. There were a total of 1672 performances of the musical during this time. In the film version, Ted Ross and Mabel King reprise their roles of the “Lion” and “Evillene.”
       On 9 Feb 1976, DV announced that Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. decided against producing a film adaptation of The Wiz, even though they were financing its theatrical run. Despite early economic losses during an undersold U.S. tour and a negative NYT review, Fox invested in an extensive television advertisement campaign that resulted in an upsurge in ticket sales. By Feb 1976, Fox had invested and recouped approximately $1.7 million.
       In the wake of Fox’s refusal to back a feature film adaptation, the musical’s producer, Ken Harper, optioned the property for eighteen months, with two unidentified major Hollywood studios interested in the project. ... More Less

A title card reads: “ The Wiz from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum.”
       End credit acknowledgements read: “Emerald City fashions: Our thanks to: Scott Barrie, Bill Blass, Stephen Burrows' World, Oscar de la Renta, Halston, Kamali, Zoran, Kolodzie, Ralph Lauren, Mary McFadden, Alixandre Paris, Halston for Ben Kahn Furs, Fernando Sanchez.”
       The picture was: “Filmed entirely at the Astoria Studios and on location in New York City. Amusement park sequence filmed at Cyclone Roller Coaster at Astroland Park, Coney Island.”
       The Tony Award-winning Broadway musical version of The Wiz opened 5 Jan 1975 at the Majestic Theatre, where it played until 25 May 1977. The Wiz moved over to the Broadway Theatre and played through 28 Jan 1979. There were a total of 1672 performances of the musical during this time. In the film version, Ted Ross and Mabel King reprise their roles of the “Lion” and “Evillene.”
       On 9 Feb 1976, DV announced that Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. decided against producing a film adaptation of The Wiz, even though they were financing its theatrical run. Despite early economic losses during an undersold U.S. tour and a negative NYT review, Fox invested in an extensive television advertisement campaign that resulted in an upsurge in ticket sales. By Feb 1976, Fox had invested and recouped approximately $1.7 million.
       In the wake of Fox’s refusal to back a feature film adaptation, the musical’s producer, Ken Harper, optioned the property for eighteen months, with two unidentified major Hollywood studios interested in the project. At the time, Harper was also thinking of financing the picture independently, with the support of tax-sheltered investors. Harper speculated that Fox’s disinterest in the motion picture stemmed from the studio’s belief that the musical was locked into a “Black Exploitation” genre. Although the musical’s attendance was initially African American, the audience was reportedly “75-80% white” by early 1976. Harper noted that the success of television situation comedies like Good Times (CBS, 1 Feb 1974 – 1 Aug 1979), The Jeffersons (CBS, 18 Jan 1975 – 23 Jul 1985), and Sanford and Son (NBC, 14 Jan 1972 – 2 Sep 1977) proved the “black vernacular” had made its way into popular culture. Screen rights to The Wiz were set to return to Fox in Aug 1977.
       On 15 Jul 1976, Universal Pictures and Motown announced their acquisition of film rights, as stated in a DV article published that day. By that time, Fox’s profits from the musical were reaching into “the hundreds of thousands” of dollars, but the studio estimated production costs of a screen version would be prohibitive. Since Fox was the “100% backer” of the musical, the Universal-Motown project was required to give that studio a sizable percentage of the film’s profits. According to DV, Universal was encouraged by the musical’s newfound success at the Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles, CA, where it was topping box-office records, but production notes in AMPAS library files state that producer Rob Cohen was the main player behind Universal’s decision to purchase the property. He had wanted to make the film as early as 1975, after seeing the musical in its first year on Broadway. Universal’s contract with Fox stipulated that principal photography could begin no later than 1 Oct 1977, according to a 20 Dec 1978 Var article.
       John Badham was hired to direct the picture within five months after the Universal-Motown deal was confirmed. Rob Cohen wanted the screen version of The Wiz to deviate dramatically from the 1939 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Corp. release of The Wizard of Oz (see entry), as well as the stage musical. Both were set in Kansas during the turn-of-the-century, but Cohen wanted to make the production more current. However, Badham was interested in directing a more traditional Wiz, and when entertainer Diana Ross was cast as “Dorothy” in Dec 1976, he left the project. As noted in the 20 Dec 1976 DV and 22 Dec 1976 LAT, Badham was unconvinced the story would work with an adult female protagonist. Still, Cohen opted to make The Wiz a vehicle for thirty-one-year-old Ross, who recently starred in his 1975 production, Mahogany (see entry). LAT reported that she was paid over $1 million for playing Dorothy. As of 22 Dec 1976, director Sidney Lumet had not been officially named as Badham’s replacement, but he was listed as a “frontrunner.”
       According to production notes, Lumet spearheaded the plan to use New York City as the film’s location. On 11 Apr 1977, DV announced that Astoria Studio in Queens, NY, was reopening its soundstages for The Wiz. The facility was originally used for silent film production in the 1920s, but was taken over by the U.S. Army Pictorial Center at the beginning of WWII, and fell out of use in 1972, as noted in a 3 Aug 1983 NYT article. In early 1977, the federal government transferred ownership of the studio to NYC, and it was planned to be used by a non-profit organization. However, local unions and city officials hoped the studio would lure filmmakers back to NYC, and Lumet was eager to promote their cause.
       Principal photography began two days behind schedule, on 3 Oct 1977, with a $10 million budget. As stated in production notes, the film was originally planned with fifty-two sequences; twenty were scheduled for the Astoria Studio and thirty-two on location in NYC.
       Shooting began at the base of the World Trade Center’s Twin Towers, where the "Emerald City" sequences were performed by over 650 fashion models and professional dancers. The production then moved to the 1939 World’s Fair grounds in Flushing Meadows, Queens, which had since been renamed “New York State Pavilion.” The arena was the location for “Graffiti City,” Dorothy’s landing spot in Oz, and the playground home of the "munchkins." The filmmakers built 750 feet of walls, covered in graffiti designs that included the obscured names of cast and crewmembers.
       Exterior subway scenes were filmed at the Astor Place station entrance. These sequences were followed by shooting at Shea Stadium, where Dorothy and her friends were chased by the motorcycle-driving “Flying Monkeys.” The “Poppy Alley” scene was then filmed on 8th Avenue before the cast and crew moved to Yankee Stadium in the Bronx.
       Beginning soundstage work at Astoria Studio, the filmmakers shot interiors of “Evillene’s Sweatshop” and Dorothy’s apartment. The production then relocated to Coney Island in Brooklyn, where the "Tinman" scene was shot underneath the Astroland Amusement Park’s Cyclone rollercoaster. Nearby, the filmmakers captured sequences in front of an abandoned tenement between Brooklyn’s Neptune and Mermaid Avenues. The Hoyt-Schermerhorn Streets subway station, also in Brooklyn, was where the “A” train was filmed. The floors were covered in vinyl flooring to replicate the "Yellow Brick Road." Final shots of the underground chase scene were captured at the 14th Street/Sixth Avenue Station. Back at Astoria Studio, the production completed filming for the "Emerald City Motel," the “Poppy Love Perfume Factory” rooftop scene, and the “Scarecrow’s” dance number.
       With most of the film finished, actor Richard Pryor arrived on set to perform his role as “The Wiz.” His “mask” was a twenty-five-foot high silver head, complete with “laser-like” spotlights that accidentally damaged Diana Ross’s eyes. In Dec 1977, entertainer Lena Horne performed her climactic number at NYC’s former Fox Studio on 54th Street. The last exterior shots were captured in front of Dorothy’s home. The front of the walk-up apartment was located in the Bedford-Stuyvesant “urban renewal district” of Brooklyn, but it stood in for a building in Harlem.
       The last scene of principal photography was the “Lion’s” song and dance performance, in which he springs-to-life from a marble sculpture outside the New York Public Library. This was filmed at Astoria.
       A 16 Oct 1978 New York article added NYC’s Wards Island Bridge as another location of The Yellow Brick Road.
       At the time of release, the production was widely criticized for its gross expenditures, inflating a budget of $10 million to upwards of $40 million, according to various sources, including a 4 Nov 1978 LAT article and the 20 Dec 1978 Var. However, director Sidney Lumet defended the cost, which he claimed was no more than $23.4 million. Lumet noted that he was forced to work within Fox’s obligatory 1 Oct 1977 principal photography start date, and that it was challenging to juggle the performers’ schedules. The inability to lock down principal actors in short order made it impossible for Lumet to provide Universal with “advance cost projections.”
       Approximately halfway through production, Universal’s president of motion pictures, Ned Tanen, was concerned that the budget had already reached $18 million. Lumet was still unable to predict a final figure, but Tanen reportedly gave permission for the film to be completed at any cost. Lumet’s calculation of $23.4 million did not include Universal’s overhead costs, which he claimed were in the $3 million range.
       The Wiz was the most expensive movie produced in New York City to date. In addition, a 12 Oct 1978 DV article speculated that the picture was the largest “film musical gamble in screen history,” since it would have to be “the biggest ‘crossover’ film ever,” appealing to white as well as black audiences. DV hinted that this might be particularly challenging because it was Sidney Lumet’s first musical.
       A 19 May 1978 HR news item announced that The Wiz was scheduled to make its world premiere on 24 Oct 1978 at Loews Astor Plaza theater in New York City. However, the 12 Oct 1978 DV reported that the debut took place on 29 Sep 1978 at Loews State II, one month ahead of schedule. The event marked the first time a feature film premiere was officially hosted by NYC. The proceeds were donated to the Astoria Motion Picture and TV Foundation, benefitting Astoria Studio. After Universal announced the premiere with a two-page advertisement in an unnamed NYC periodical, audiences lined up five hours before the 8:00 p.m. show time, and all publically available tickets sold out immediately. The predominantly African-American audience cheered the film and demanded a second viewing the same evening. DV noted that the picture received a positive review in the 2 Oct 1978 HR, but due to its extensive marketing campaign, The Wiz would have to earn approximately $60 million to make a profit.
       On 27 Oct 1978, DV reported that the film’s west coast premiere at the Plitt Century Plaza Theater in Century City, CA, raised over $100,000 for AFI’s Los Angeles International Film Exposition (Filmex) festival.
       The Wiz opened on 25 Oct 1978 and 26 Oct 1978 in NYC and Los Angeles, CA, respectively. According to the 4 Nov 1978 LAT, the picture grossed $942,814 its opening weekend at thirty-six theaters, and broke a number of box-office records. Although earnings dropped the second week, Universal had already negotiated a deal with CBS-TV for network television rights. By 8 Nov 1978, Var reported that the thirty-six theaters were generally maintaining ticket sales, and a second “wave of release” on 3 Nov 1978 at thirty-one additional venues was successfully underway. By Monday, 6 Nov 1978, the picture had grossed $2,534,449 at sixty-seven theaters.
       Despite Universal’s losses from The Wiz, the studio had an extremely lucrative year in 1978, when it topped its 1975 record for domestic and international rentals. According to a 7 Feb 1979 Var article, Universal ranked second only to Paramount Pictures as the year’s most successful production company. By Feb 1979, The Wiz had grossed $8,300,000, but Universal executive Ned Tanen referred to it as a “disappointment” rather than a “failure.”
       The picture marked the theatrical film debut of entertainer Michael Jackson, and his introduction to Quincy Jones. Jackson’s performance as the “Scarecrow” persuaded Jones to produce Jackson’s 1979 hit record, Off the Wall.
       On 30 Jan 1980, Var announced the film won “six out of eight feature film categories” in the NAACP’s Image Awards, including Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture (Michael Jackson), Best Supporting Actors (Lena Horne and Nipsey Russell) and Best Director.
       The Wiz was also nominated for four Academy Awards in the following categories: Art Direction, Cinematography, Costume Design, and Music (Adaptation Score).
More Less

SOURCE CITATIONS
SOURCE
DATE
PAGE
Daily Variety
9 Feb 1976.
---
Daily Variety
15 Jul 1976
p. 7.
Daily Variety
20 Dec 1976.
---
Daily Variety
11 Apr 1977
p. 1, 7.
Daily Variety
12 Oct 1978.
---
Daily Variety
27 Oct 1978.
---
Hollywood Reporter
19 May 1978.
---
Hollywood Reporter
2 Oct 1978
p. 4.
Los Angeles Times
22 Dec 1976
Section E, p. 8.
Los Angeles Times
26 Oct 1978
Section E, p. 1, 25.
Los Angeles Times
4 Nov 1978
Section B, p. 5.
New York
16 Oct 1978
pp. 92-94.
New York Times
26 Oct 1978.
---
New York Times
3 Aug 1983.
---
Variety
4 Oct 1978
p. 18.
Variety
8 Nov 1978
p. 1, 79.
Variety
20 Dec 1978.
---
Variety
7 Feb 1979
p. 3, 41.
Variety
30 Jan 1980
p. 32, 94.
CAST
PRODUCTION CREDITS
NAME
PARENT COMPANY
PRODUCTION TEXT
A Motown Production
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
DIRECTORS
Prod mgr
1st asst dir
2d asst dir
PRODUCERS
Prod
Assoc prod
Exec prod
WRITER
PHOTOGRAPHY
Dir of photog
Matte photog
Matte photog
2d unit photog
1st asst cam
Gaffer
Key grip
Lightflex equip by
ART DIRECTORS
Prod des
Asst art dir
FILM EDITORS
Film ed
Asst film ed
Asst film ed
SET DECORATORS
Set dec
Chief scenic artist
Chief scenic artist
Fantasy props
Fantasy props
Flying rigs
Prop master
Const chief
Const grip
Carpenter
The Yellow Brick Road created by
COSTUMES
Cost coord
Cost coord
Asst cost des
Principal cost executed by
MUSIC
Orig mus score
Mus arr and supv by
Mus rec eng
Orch cond by
Choir cond and arr by
Dance arr by
Dance arr by
Vocal arr by
Supv mus ed
SOUND
Spec sd consultant
Sd mixer
Re-rec supv
Supv sd ed
Sd ed
Sd ed
Sd ed
Sd ed
VISUAL EFFECTS
Spec visual eff by
Spec eff
DANCE
Choreog
Asst choreog
Asst choreog
MAKEUP
Spec make-up des by
Makeup supv
Makeup artist
Makeup artist
Makeup artist
Makeup artist
Hairstylist
Hairstylist
PRODUCTION MISC
Prod on the New York Stage by
Prod asst coord
Scr supv
Prod office coord
Auditor
Transportation chief
TOTO owned and trained by
Motorcycles furnished by
STAND INS
Stunt coord
COLOR PERSONNEL
Col by
SOURCES
LITERARY
Based on the play The Wiz, book by William F. Brown, music and lyrics by Charlie Smalls. [Based on the novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum (Chicago, 1900).]
SONGS
Additional songs: "You Can't Win, You Can't Break Even," by Charlie Smalls
"Poppy Theme," by Quincy Jones
"Emerald City Ballet," music by Quincy Jones, lyrics by Charlie Smalls
+
SONGS
Additional songs: "You Can't Win, You Can't Break Even," by Charlie Smalls
"Poppy Theme," by Quincy Jones
"Emerald City Ballet," music by Quincy Jones, lyrics by Charlie Smalls
"Is This What Feeling Gets?," by Quincy Jones, Nick Ashford & Valerie Simpson
"Can I Go On Not Knowing?," by Quincy Jones, Nick Ashford & Valerie Simpson
"Everybody Rejoice," music and lyrics by Luther Vandross.
+
DETAILS
Alternate Title:
The Wiz from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum
Release Date:
25 October 1978
Premiere Information:
World premiere in New York City: 29 September 1978
New York opening: 25 October 1978
Los Angeles opening: 26 October 1978
Chicago opening: 27 October 1978
Production Date:
3 October -- 29 December 1977 in New York City
Copyright Claimant:
Universal City Studios, Inc.
Copyright Date:
12 December 1978
Copyright Number:
PA21639
Physical Properties:
Sound
Dolby Stereo
Color
Lenses
Lenses and Panaflex camera by Panavision®
Duration(in mins):
133
MPAA Rating:
G
Country:
United States
Language:
English
Passed by NBR:
No
SYNOPSIS

A shy, twenty-four-year-old teacher named Dorothy prepares a holiday supper at the New York City apartment of her adoptive parents, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry. While her family enjoys the festivities, Dorothy wonders why she is unable to share their happiness. Later, Aunt Em encourages Dorothy to accept a new job and venture out of Harlem, but Dorothy is afraid to leave home. Just then, her dog, Toto, runs outside into a snowstorm. Dorothy chases after Toto, and the two are swept up in a magic tornado, created by Glinda, “The Good,” a sorceress who lives in the mystical Land of Oz. When the storm subsides, Dorothy finds herself a sandbox at a dark playground, where children are embedded in the concrete of city walls. Peeling themselves free, the youths show Dorothy that her arrival in Oz killed Evermean, the Wicked Witch of the East. Her surviving sister, Evillene, is the Wicked Witch of the West. Evermean was the city parks commissioner, and she turned the young “munchkins” into graffiti when she saw them painting on the playground walls. As Dorothy is praised for liberating the youngsters, a shopping bag-toting sorceress named “Miss One” arrives and magically transfers Evermean’s silver shoes onto Dorothy’s feet. The young woman is terrified and wants to go home, so Miss One advises her to keep Evermean’s slippers on her feet and seek help from the miraculous “Wiz,” who lives in Emerald City. She tells Dorothy to follow the yellow brick road, but she does not know where it begins. Miss One and the children disappear, leaving Dorothy and Toto alone. ... +


A shy, twenty-four-year-old teacher named Dorothy prepares a holiday supper at the New York City apartment of her adoptive parents, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry. While her family enjoys the festivities, Dorothy wonders why she is unable to share their happiness. Later, Aunt Em encourages Dorothy to accept a new job and venture out of Harlem, but Dorothy is afraid to leave home. Just then, her dog, Toto, runs outside into a snowstorm. Dorothy chases after Toto, and the two are swept up in a magic tornado, created by Glinda, “The Good,” a sorceress who lives in the mystical Land of Oz. When the storm subsides, Dorothy finds herself a sandbox at a dark playground, where children are embedded in the concrete of city walls. Peeling themselves free, the youths show Dorothy that her arrival in Oz killed Evermean, the Wicked Witch of the East. Her surviving sister, Evillene, is the Wicked Witch of the West. Evermean was the city parks commissioner, and she turned the young “munchkins” into graffiti when she saw them painting on the playground walls. As Dorothy is praised for liberating the youngsters, a shopping bag-toting sorceress named “Miss One” arrives and magically transfers Evermean’s silver shoes onto Dorothy’s feet. The young woman is terrified and wants to go home, so Miss One advises her to keep Evermean’s slippers on her feet and seek help from the miraculous “Wiz,” who lives in Emerald City. She tells Dorothy to follow the yellow brick road, but she does not know where it begins. Miss One and the children disappear, leaving Dorothy and Toto alone. As the sun rises, Dorothy discovers a Scarecrow near a burned out housing project. Ridiculed by four crows, the Scarecrow begs to be released from his perch and laments that he does not have a brain. Dorothy shoos the birds aside, helps the Scarecrow down, and invites him to the Emerald City so he can ask the Wiz for a brain. When the Scarecrow discovers the beginning of the yellow brick road, the friends follow the avenue to an abandoned amusement park resembling Coney Island. There, a Tinman calls for help, explaining that he is rusted and cannot move. As Dorothy and the Scarecrow carefully move his joints, the Tinman regrets he is unable to feel. They encourage him to ask the Wiz for a heart, and the three continue along the yellow brick road. At the deserted façade of the New York Public Library, a stone statue Lion breaks free and terrifies the companions, but he sobs when Toto nips his ankle. The Lion explains he is not brave, after all, and the friends persuade him to ask the Wiz for courage. In a subway, the foursome is followed by an eerie peddler and pursued by various monsters, but the Lion chases them away. Continuing along the road, the friends come to the “red light district” of Oz, where “Poppy Love Perfume” is pumped into an alleyway of half-dressed women. The Scarecrow realizes they have fallen into a trap, but Dorothy and the Lion are drugged by the poppy scent and become unconscious. Believing his friends to be dead, the Tinman cries, but his tears drip onto their faces and awaken them. Just then, the sun rises in the shape of an apple and the Emerald City appears in the distance as the skyline of New York City. The four cross the yellow brick road along the Brooklyn Bridge, only to find a heavily guarded vault door entrance to the city. A doorman refers them to the service entrance but notices Dorothy’s silver slippers and quickly lets the travelers in. There, a cluster of enormous jewels are illuminated in green light between the twin towers of the World Trade Center. As finely dressed citizens carouse in the jade glow, the Wiz makes an announcement over a loudspeaker, declaring that Emerald City’s color has been changed to red. When the city takes on a scarlet hue, the Wiz changes his mind again, and announces that yellow is the new fashion. The courtyard turns gold. The Wiz demands to see Dorothy, but she refuses to meet him without her friends. Taking an elevator to the top of the building, the companions see an enormous, fire-breathing mask. Terrified, they ask the Wiz for a brain, a heart, courage, and a way home, but the Wiz wants Dorothy’s silver slippers in return. When she protests, he orders the team to kill Evillene, the Wicked Witch of the West. Outside the gates of Emerald City, the guards lead the companions to a sewer where Evillene runs a “sweat shop” and rules her slaves from a bejeweled toilet. She summons her foul-smelling flying monkeys to capture Dorothy and her friends, and the creatures go after them on motorcycles. When they are brought back to Evillene’s warehouse, the witch demands the return of her dead sister’s slippers. Dorothy refuses and the Scarecrow is cut in half by a power saw. Meanwhile, the Tinman is flattened by a steam press and the Lion is hung from the rafters by his tail. When Evillene threatens to throw Toto into a furnace, Dorothy agrees to surrender the shoes. As she sits to remove them, the Scarecrow nods toward a fire extinguisher. Dorothy sets off the overhead sprinklers and the warehouse is showered with water. Evillene is sucked down her toilet bowl throne. The witch’s servants repair Dorothy’s mangled friends, celebrate their freedom, and peel off their sweatshop costumes to discover human bodies beneath. The flying monkeys drive Dorothy and friends back to the Emerald City, and leave them at the “back door.” Inside, they find the Wiz’s mask head toppled over and realize they were manipulated by a false prophet. Apologizing, the Wiz explains he was never powerful, but rather a failed politician named “Herman Smith” from Atlantic City, New Jersey. As part of a campaign to be elected Dog Catcher, he hovered above the city in a hot air balloon to distribute flyers. However, he was swept away by a storm and landed in Oz. The residents of Emerald City had never seen an aircraft and proclaimed him “the Wiz.” He has lived in solitude ever since, fearing his true identity would be revealed. Dorothy’s friends lament they will never have a brain, a heart, or courage, but she reminds them that they had these qualities all along. Just then, Glinda, “the Good,” appears in a starry sky. She tells Dorothy that home is not just a place. It is the understanding of one’s own mind, heart, and courage. Glinda promises the girl that she can be at home anywhere in the world as long as she believes in herself. When Dorothy learns she can return to Harlem by clicking the heels of her silver slippers three times, the Wiz asks for help getting home. She advises him to go on his own journey of self-discovery. Dorothy bids her friends farewell, clicks her heels, and returns to the snowy street outside her apartment building. +

Legend
Viewed by AFI
Partially Viewed
Offscreen Credit
Name Occurs Before Title
AFI Life Achievement Award

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The American Film Institute is grateful to Sir Paul Getty KBE and the Sir Paul Getty KBE Estate for their dedication to the art of the moving image and their support for the AFI Catalog of Feature Films and without whose support AFI would not have been able to achieve this historical landmark in this epic scholarly endeavor.