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HISTORY

The film opens with the statement: "Long ago, at the end of the last great Ice Age, there arose in the North a powerful queen. Her name was Juliana, and her ambition was to extend her realm to all the regions of the known world."
       The 9 Feb 1981 DV advertised auditions held by director-producer Ralph Bakshi for a young actress to appear in his upcoming film with the working title, Sword & Sorcery, to be produced in Spain. Applicants were required to be of small stature with considerable athletic ability. On 26 Feb 1981, DV production charts announced that production would begin 8 Jun 1981 in Los Angeles, CA, under the film’s official title, Fire and Ice. According to the 23 Mar 1981 HR, Mark Damon, head of Producers Sales Organization (PSO), pre-sold the film to foreign markets at the 1981 American Film Market (AFM), with a projected release in Dec 1982. No U.S. release was scheduled at the time. Damon later arranged for forty representatives of the Japanese press to observe the production in progress at Bakshi’s animation studio, as reported in the 6 Aug 1981 HR.
       The 9 Jul 1981 DV and the 24 Jul 1981 LAT stated that actress-model Carole Mallory was cast in the role of “Juliana.” She was to be photographed in action sequences, which would then be recreated as animated images. Mallory was later replaced by actress Eileen O’Neill. According to production notes in AMPAS library files, the film was photographed twice: first as live action, ...

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The film opens with the statement: "Long ago, at the end of the last great Ice Age, there arose in the North a powerful queen. Her name was Juliana, and her ambition was to extend her realm to all the regions of the known world."
       The 9 Feb 1981 DV advertised auditions held by director-producer Ralph Bakshi for a young actress to appear in his upcoming film with the working title, Sword & Sorcery, to be produced in Spain. Applicants were required to be of small stature with considerable athletic ability. On 26 Feb 1981, DV production charts announced that production would begin 8 Jun 1981 in Los Angeles, CA, under the film’s official title, Fire and Ice. According to the 23 Mar 1981 HR, Mark Damon, head of Producers Sales Organization (PSO), pre-sold the film to foreign markets at the 1981 American Film Market (AFM), with a projected release in Dec 1982. No U.S. release was scheduled at the time. Damon later arranged for forty representatives of the Japanese press to observe the production in progress at Bakshi’s animation studio, as reported in the 6 Aug 1981 HR.
       The 9 Jul 1981 DV and the 24 Jul 1981 LAT stated that actress-model Carole Mallory was cast in the role of “Juliana.” She was to be photographed in action sequences, which would then be recreated as animated images. Mallory was later replaced by actress Eileen O’Neill. According to production notes in AMPAS library files, the film was photographed twice: first as live action, and then with animated characters traced over the actors. Because the live action footage would not be included in the final edit, no special lighting or sets were needed, only the physical movements of the actors. Items such as trees could be substituted with lengths of pipe, or a scaffold could stand in for the face of a cliff. In fight scenes, actors were outfitted with harmless rolled-up newspapers in place of weapons, resulting in more realistic battle sequences.
       Bakshi and his fellow producer, renowned fantasy illustrator Frank Frazetta, chose actors based on their physical agility, as well as for their appearance. This proved to be a difficult process, especially in the casting of “Teegra,” who Frazetta described as “the ultimate dream girl.” After hundreds of actresses auditioned alongside a “life size rendering” of the character, Frazetta realized that “Teegra” was more an idealization than a reality. Having no previous experience with animation, Frazetta discovered that a person with an extraordinary physique seemed “less than ordinary” when traced on a rotoscope, and required artistic embellishment.
       Once the live-action footage was edited into a completed film, each frame was enlarged to an eight by ten inch image, from which Backshi’s 200 artists created the animated feature. Frazetta supplied figure studies of his characters, and, in some cases, three-dimensional busts. He and Bakshi worked closely with their artists and animators, assuring that their high quality standards were maintained. Since no live-action counterpart existed, Frazetta personally animated his “fantasy beasts,” such as the giant swamp lizard and the flying “Dragonhawks.”
       The 18 Jan 1983 HR announced that Fire and Ice would premiere that week at the Avoriaz Film Festival in Avoriaz, France. Frazetta would accompany the $10 million picture to the festival, and stated that the entire production took two years from concept to completion, including the story and characters he and Bakshi created. The artist was reportedly pleased with the finished film, though he found the animation process “far too time consuming.” However, Frazetta told the Nov 1983 Moviegoer that he would have preferred a more classic adventure story, such as King Kong (1933, see entry). A general release in France was planned for Mar 1983.
       The 19 Aug 1983 U.S. opening of Fire and Ice was heralded on 4 Aug 1983 in DV and HR. The announcement was made by the film’s recently-acquired distributor, Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp.
       The picture opened to mixed reviews. While the 31 Aug 1983 Var projected a profitable run based on the popularity of both Frazetta’s and Bakshi’s previous work, the 27 Aug 1983 LAHExam suggested that its primary appeal was to “white adolescent males of an extremely conservative bent,” citing the villains in the film as “women in positions of authority, homosexuals and non-white males.” According to the Nov 1983 Box, Fire and Ice earned $750,000 at sixty theaters over a seventeen-day period.
       On 27 Feb 1987, HR reported that actress Emma Samms sued photographer Kathryn Ammermas for $1 million, in connection with a series of semi-nude photographs taken of the actress when she auditioned for the film, nearly six years earlier. Although Ammermas claimed that the photographs had been destroyed, an article in the National Enquirer stated that they still existed, prompting Samms to file the lawsuit, along with an injunction to prevent the pictures from being released to the public. The outcome of the case could not be determined as of the writing of this Note.

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GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS
SOURCE CITATIONS
SOURCE
DATE
PAGE
Box Office
Nov 1983
p. 58
Daily Variety
9 Feb 1981
---
Daily Variety
26 Feb 1981
---
Daily Variety
9 Jul 1981
---
Daily Variety
4 Aug 1983
---
Hollywood Reporter
23 Mar 1981
---
Hollywood Reporter
6 Aug 1981
---
Hollywood Reporter
6 Sep 1981
---
Hollywood Reporter
18 Jan 1983
p. 3, 114
Hollywood Reporter
4 Aug 1983
---
Hollywood Reporter
19 Aug 1983
---
Hollywood Reporter
26 Aug 1983
p. 3, 29
Hollywood Reporter
27 Feb 1987
---
LAHExam
27 Aug 1983
---
Los Angeles Times
24 Jul 1981
---
Los Angeles Times
26 Aug 1983
p. 1
Moviegoer
Nov 1983
---
New York Times
24 Nov 1983
p. 12
Variety
31 Aug 1983
p. 18
CAST
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT

PRODUCTION CREDITS
NAME
PARENT COMPANY
PRODUCTION TEXTS
Producers Sales Organization Presents
A Ralph Bakshi/Frank Frazetta Production
A Ralph Bakshi Film
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
DIRECTOR
PRODUCERS
Exec prod
Assoc prod
WRITERS
PHOTOGRAPHY
Dir of photog
Ray Stella
Cam op
Cam op
1st asst cam
1st asst cam
1st asst cam
2d asst cam
Gaffer
Elec best boy
Key grip
Best boy
FILM EDITORS
Assoc ed
Asst ed
Asst ed
Negative cutting
Negative cutting
COSTUMES
Cost des
Cost supv
Costumer
MUSIC
Mus comp and cond
Mus ed
Mus scoring mixer
SOUND
Supv sd ed
Sd ed
Re-rec mixer
Re-rec mixer
Re-rec mixer
Sd mixer
VISUAL EFFECTS
MAKEUP
Hairstylist
PRODUCTION MISC
Prod services
Prod controller
Prod admin
Prod supv
Studio prod supv
Prod accountant
Prod staff
Prod staff
Prod staff
Casting
Tepper-Gallegos Casting
Live action prod supv
Prod coord
Prod staff
Prod staff
Prod staff
Prod staff
STAND INS
Stunt coord
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntman
Stuntwoman
ANIMATION
Anim prod supv
layout
Background layout
Backgrounds painted by
Backgrounds painted by
Col model
Anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Asst anim
Anim checker
Anim checker
Anim checker
Cel reproduction
Xerox checker
Xerox checker
Final checker
Final checker
Final checker
Col mark-up
Painter
Painter
Anim cam
SOURCES
LITERARY
Characters created by Ralph Bakshi and Frank Frazetta.
LITERARY SOURCE AUTHORS
DETAILS
Alternate Title:
Sword & Sorcery
Release Date:
19 August 1983
Premiere Information:
Premiered at Avoriaz Film Festival, Avoriaz, France: week of 18 Jan 1983; Los Angeles opening: 26 Aug 1983; New York opening: 23 Nov 1983
Production Date:
began 8 Jun 1981 in Los Angeles, CA
Copyright Info
Claimant
Date
Copyright Number
Morison Film Group, Inc.
21 February 1984
PA204545
Physical Properties:
Sound
Dolby Stereo in selected theatres
Color
Color by DeLuxe®
Duration(in mins):
82
MPAA Rating:
PG
Country:
United States
Language:
English
PCA No:
26848
SYNOPSIS

Toward the end of the last ice age, evil Queen Juliana gathers an army to conquer the known world, and gives birth to a son named Nekron, whom she trains in the use of black magic and mind control. When Nekron reaches manhood, he and his mother conquer “the region of ice,” which they rule from their castle, Ice Peak. Nekron goes on a rampage of conquest and devastation, deploying glaciers to destroy villages and an army of subhumans to slaughter the inhabitants. The survivors travel south to the volcanic region ruled by the generous King Jarol from his fortress, Firekeep, the final stronghold against Juliana and Nekron. The queen sends three envoys to Firekeep to arrange King Jarol’s surrender, but when he refuses to submit to her tyranny, a group of subhumans kidnap his daughter, Teegra. The outraged king kills the envoys and sends his dragonhawks to retrieve her. Meanwhile, Teegra breaks free and takes refuge in an abandoned city, where she meets Larn, the sole survivor of a village destroyed by Nekron’s glaciers. Their attraction to each other is immediate, and they spend the day hunting, gathering, and playing among the ruins. The next morning, Teegra invites Larn to return with her to Firekeep, but as they ford a river, he is pulled under by a giant octopus. Although Larn survives the ordeal, Teegra assumes he is dead, and, as she mourns for him on the riverbank, the subhumans abduct her. Sometime later, a masked warrior named Darkwolf appears and aids Larn in his search for Teegra. That night, the princess is chained to one of ...

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Toward the end of the last ice age, evil Queen Juliana gathers an army to conquer the known world, and gives birth to a son named Nekron, whom she trains in the use of black magic and mind control. When Nekron reaches manhood, he and his mother conquer “the region of ice,” which they rule from their castle, Ice Peak. Nekron goes on a rampage of conquest and devastation, deploying glaciers to destroy villages and an army of subhumans to slaughter the inhabitants. The survivors travel south to the volcanic region ruled by the generous King Jarol from his fortress, Firekeep, the final stronghold against Juliana and Nekron. The queen sends three envoys to Firekeep to arrange King Jarol’s surrender, but when he refuses to submit to her tyranny, a group of subhumans kidnap his daughter, Teegra. The outraged king kills the envoys and sends his dragonhawks to retrieve her. Meanwhile, Teegra breaks free and takes refuge in an abandoned city, where she meets Larn, the sole survivor of a village destroyed by Nekron’s glaciers. Their attraction to each other is immediate, and they spend the day hunting, gathering, and playing among the ruins. The next morning, Teegra invites Larn to return with her to Firekeep, but as they ford a river, he is pulled under by a giant octopus. Although Larn survives the ordeal, Teegra assumes he is dead, and, as she mourns for him on the riverbank, the subhumans abduct her. Sometime later, a masked warrior named Darkwolf appears and aids Larn in his search for Teegra. That night, the princess is chained to one of her captors, and she kills him in self-defense while his comrades sleep. Larn and Darkwolf arrive at the scene moments later, and as they battle the subhumans, Teegra is carried off by a large, inarticulate man named Otwa, who brings her to the hut of his mother, the sorceress Roleil. Using her psychic powers, Roleil learns that Teegra is wanted by Nekron, and orders Otwa to bring the subhumans to her hut, expecting to collect a ransom for the princess. Instead, the subhumans murder Roleil and her son, then recapture Teegra. The bodies burst into flames and burn the hut to the ground. Larn comes upon the wreckage and finds two charred corpses among the ashes. Roleil springs to life, informing him that Teegra is sailing to Nekron’s realm from the nearby port of Agatar, then demands vengeance against the prince as she crumbles into dust. Larn makes his way to Agatar and stows away on the ship as it sets sail to Ice Peak. When Teegra arrives at the castle, Juliana advises Nekron to marry her and produce heirs, which he finds repulsive. Teegra pleads for peace between their peoples, but Nekron refuses to listen and casts her into an icy wasteland, strewn with the bodies of his victims. Taro appears at the castle moments later with a pair of envoys, hoping to negotiate Teegra’s safe return. Though Nekron refuses to discuss Teegra’s release, he reconsiders marrying her, saying that she is “not unattractive, as lesser beasts go.” Taro is offended and draws his sword, but Nekron’s magic renders him helpless, and compels him to kill the envoys and himself. Larn witnesses the slaughter and shoots an arrow at Nekron, which the prince deflects with his magic. The two men engage in a sword fight, but when Larn proves himself the better swordsman, Nekron renders him unconscious and locks him in a cell. Teegra returns to the castle and helps Larn to freedom before she is abducted by a subhuman. Darkwolf joins Larn as he makes his way to Firekeep, where they apprise King Jarol of his daughter’s plight and the rapid approach of Nekron’s glacier. They suggest flying themselves and a troop of soldiers into the ice palace on dragonhawks, believing that at least one of them will have the opportunity to slay Nekron. The king agrees, but warns that he will release the lava from his volcanoes if the glacier crosses the river. The invaders are greeted by a barrage of arrows as they fly toward the palace, leaving Darkwolf and Larn the only survivors. While Larn frees Teegra, Darkwolf overcomes Nekron’s magic and defeats the prince in a battle to the death. However, the glacier continues its forward motion, forcing King Jarol to release the lava. Larn and Teegra flee to safety on a dragonhawk as the ice collapses around them. The next morning, they see Darkwolf on horseback at the top of a hill, and a lone subhuman crawling from the river. As Larn is about to kill the creature, Teegra intervenes, reminding him that the war is over. She embraces Larn and they kiss.

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Legend
Viewed by AFI
Partially Viewed
Offscreen Credit
Name Occurs Before Title
AFI Life Achievement Award

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