Dazed and Confused (1993)

R | 101 mins | Comedy | 23 September 1993

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HISTORY

An article in the Oct 2003 issue of Texas Monthly magazine stated that writer-director-producer Richard Linklater was approached by producer James Jacks while Linklater was promoting his feature film debut, Slacker (1991, see entry). Linklater pitched an idea for a high school film set in the 1970s. Much of the screenplay was based on his own high school experience in Huntsville, TX, according to the 5 Oct 1993 Village Voice, including the hazing rituals depicted in the film. Linklater also named characters after high school classmates, three of whom – Bobby Wooderson, Richard “Pink” Floyd, and Andy Slater – sued Universal for “defamation” and “emotional distress,” claiming that Linklater never asked permission to use their names, as reported in a 10 Dec 2004 LAT item. The outcome of the lawsuit could not be determined as of the writing of this note.
       According to a 19 Mar 1992 HR news brief, the $5-million Dazed and Confused was set to be produced by Linklater’s Detour Filmproduction. Producers James Jacks and Shawn Daniel were said to be “helping out” Linklater, who would have “total independence…to create a director’s piece.” Jacks and Daniel denied the project would be part of their new production deal at Universal Pictures, although it was possible Universal might acquire distribution rights to the finished film in a “negative pick-up” deal. A conflicting report in the 19 Jun 1992 HR stated the film would be Jacks and Daniel’s first under their Universal deal. The film was ultimately released by Gramercy Pictures, a joint venture between Universal and PolyGram Filmed Entertainment. The final ...

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An article in the Oct 2003 issue of Texas Monthly magazine stated that writer-director-producer Richard Linklater was approached by producer James Jacks while Linklater was promoting his feature film debut, Slacker (1991, see entry). Linklater pitched an idea for a high school film set in the 1970s. Much of the screenplay was based on his own high school experience in Huntsville, TX, according to the 5 Oct 1993 Village Voice, including the hazing rituals depicted in the film. Linklater also named characters after high school classmates, three of whom – Bobby Wooderson, Richard “Pink” Floyd, and Andy Slater – sued Universal for “defamation” and “emotional distress,” claiming that Linklater never asked permission to use their names, as reported in a 10 Dec 2004 LAT item. The outcome of the lawsuit could not be determined as of the writing of this note.
       According to a 19 Mar 1992 HR news brief, the $5-million Dazed and Confused was set to be produced by Linklater’s Detour Filmproduction. Producers James Jacks and Shawn Daniel were said to be “helping out” Linklater, who would have “total independence…to create a director’s piece.” Jacks and Daniel denied the project would be part of their new production deal at Universal Pictures, although it was possible Universal might acquire distribution rights to the finished film in a “negative pick-up” deal. A conflicting report in the 19 Jun 1992 HR stated the film would be Jacks and Daniel’s first under their Universal deal. The film was ultimately released by Gramercy Pictures, a joint venture between Universal and PolyGram Filmed Entertainment. The final budget was between $6 and $6.9 million, as cited in the 22 Sep 1993 LAT, 9 Jun 1993 DV, and Oct 2003 Texas Monthly.
       Casting director Don Phillips was called out of retirement to assemble the young cast. Phillips insisted on the freedom to cast unknown actors, although Universal approached up-and-coming star, Brendan Fraser, who passed on the project. Other young actors who auditioned but were not cast included Vince Vaughn and Claire Danes. Phillips lamented there were no female roles left by the time he auditioned Renée Zellweger in Austin, TX. Zellweger made her unofficial feature film debut in Dazed and Confused, in an uncredited cameo in the “beer bust” sequence. Fifteen-year-old Wiley Wiggins, who made his feature film debut as “Mitch Kramer,” was discovered by co-producer Anne Walker-McBay outside Quackenbush’s coffee shop in Austin. Matthew McConaughey, who had never before appeared in a feature film, was discovered by Don Phillips at a Hyatt hotel bar in Austin. McConaughey reportedly earned $300 a day playing “Wooderson,” which grew into a bigger role when Shawn Andrews had a hard time fitting in with the rest of the cast. Actor Rory Cochrane wore a wig for the role of “Slater,” and reportedly improvised his speech at the “Moon Tower” about George and Martha Washington’s love of marijuana. Actress Marisa Ribisi stated that her character, “Cynthia,” was initially supposed to have a crush on “Tony,” played by Anthony Rapp, but the two lacked onscreen chemistry, and it was decided that Cynthia and Wooderson would have a flirtation, instead. Prior to production, Linklater sent the actors individualized mix-tapes of 1970s music to help them get into character.
       Linklater was reportedly concerned that Universal might try to achieve a PG-13 rating from the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) by cutting out scenes showing teen drug use. Thus, he inserted marijuana into as many scenes as possible to make the R-rating unavoidable.
       Linklater met opposition from Universal over the soundtrack. He argued that the film needed genuine 1970s classic rock songs instead of songs re-recorded by current artists, as suggested by the studio. They finally compromised when Linklater agreed to give up his royalties from the soundtrack. A 2 Oct 1993 LAT article stated that the songs licensed for the film cost around $1 million, roughly one-sixth of the total budget. Bob Dylan’s “Hurricane” reportedly cost $80,000. Linklater approached the band Led Zeppelin, whose song “Dazed And Confused” inspired the film’s title, offering them $100,000 to use the song “Rock And Roll.” However, Robert Plant rejected the sum as too low.
       Principal photography began in Austin on 13 Jul 1992, according to the 14 Jul 1992 HR production chart. Sometime during filming, sixteen-year-old model-actress Milla Jovovich, who plays “Melissa,” eloped with Shawn Andrews, her onscreen boyfriend, as noted in the 2 Aug 2009 Mail on Sunday [London]. However, the marriage was later annulled.
       An article in the 22 Sep 1993 LAT reported that the MPAA banned Gramercy Pictures’ initial television and print advertisements over unacceptable references to drugs and drug paraphernalia. According to the 24 Sep 1993 LAT, the banned advertisements included a quote from an Us magazine review, calling the film “deliciously accurate in its portrayal of the generation that fell between LSD and R.E.M.,” and Gramercy’s slogan, “Finally! A movie for everyone who DID inhale.” The $3-million marketing campaign included other slogans like, “See it with a bud,” "The film everyone is toking about,” and “Have a nice daze,” as well as an image of a “stoned-out ‘70s happy face.” Gramercy’s press kit was comprised of articles on the “resurgence of marijuana use,” tins bearing the happy-face logo, marijuana earrings, and rolling papers. Also promoting the film, Rory Cochrane appeared in character as “Slater” on the cover of the marijuana magazine High Times, as noted in the 5 Oct 1993 Village Voice. Although the MPAA previously allowed films like 1978’s Up in Smoke to include obvious drug references in advertisements, MPAA chief Jack Valenti acknowledged the rules had become stricter in recent years. A 24 Sep 1993 LAT article noted Gramercy president Russell Schwartz sent a letter to several Hollywood studio heads and marketing executives, hoping to incite a protest against the MPAA’s censorship of the Us quote, stating, “It’s one thing to restrict advertising copy, [but] censorship of a quote from a legitimate media outlet” set a “new, alarming precedent.”
       The theatrical release took place on 24 Sep 1993 on 150 screens in fifteen cities, including Los Angeles, CA, New York City, and the college towns of Madison, WI, and Champagne, IL, as stated in the 22 Sep 1993 LAT. Although the film grossed only $8 million, it went on to become a cult hit, and in the next ten years, earned over $30 million in home video sales and rentals, according to the Oct 2003 Texas Monthly, which also stated that the two-volume soundtrack released by Giant Records sold more than two million copies, to that time.
       Critical reception was largely positive. Many reviewers compared the film to George Lucas’s American Graffiti (1973, see entry), albeit with lower narrative stakes. The soundtrack received consistent praise.
       The Feb 1994 issue of Details magazine included a report on films they considered poorly marketed in 1993, including Dazed and Confused. Gramercy Pictures’ attempt to attract “dope smokers and young people” was deemed ineffective, as were their smiley-face logo that did not appeal to the under-25 crowd, and advertisements that lacked photos of the young, sexy cast. Details also noted Gramercy’s failure to highlight good reviews, including an unexpected rave from The New Yorker, which could have positioned the film as a 1970s version of Barry Levinson’s critically-lauded Diner (1982, see entry).
       Two years after filming, in the summer of 1995, cinematographer Lee Daniel was injured in an automobile accident. A benefit screening of Dazed and Confused was held on 7 Dec 1995, with proceeds going toward Daniel’s medical and rehabilitation costs, as noted in an LAT “Morning Report” column on the day of the screening.
       A home video version of Dazed and Confused was released by the Criterion Collection, as noted in a 5 Jul 2006 Village Voice item. The two-disc DVD set included director’s commentary, deleted scenes, footage from auditions and a ten-year anniversary celebration, and a fifty-minute documentary on the making of the film.
       An 18 Nov 2015 NYT item announced that Richard Linklater’s upcoming Everybody Wants Some, a college baseball film set in 1980, was premiering as the opening-night attraction of the South by Southwest Film Festival. Although the film had been referred to by some as a “spiritual sequel” to Dazed and Confused, Linklater told Creative Screenwriting magazine in a 2014 interview that it was a “continuation” of his 2014 film Boyhood (see entry).
       End credits include the following statements: “Filmed on location in Austin, Texas”; “The producers wish to thank the following for their help in the making of this film: The Austin Police Department; Ivan Bigley; The City of Austin, Texas; Clein & White; Bill Daniel; Travis Johnson; Peter Millius; Mobile Picture Services, Dallas; Chale Nafus; Diane Perella; Jon Sanchez; Pat Sullivan; The Texas Film Commission; Jesse Williams Thomas; David Santos Wilson”; and, “In memory: Kevin Lucas.”

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GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS
SOURCE CITATIONS
SOURCE
DATE
PAGE
Daily Variety
9 Jun 1993
---
Details
Feb 1994
p. 130
Hollywood Reporter
19 Mar 1992
---
Hollywood Reporter
19 Jun 1992
---
Hollywood Reporter
14 Jul 1992
---
Hollywood Reporter
13 Sep 1993
p. 7, 31
Los Angeles Times
22 Sep 1993
p. 1
Los Angeles Times
24 Sep 1993
p. 1
Los Angeles Times
24 Sep 1993
Calendar, p. 20
Los Angeles Times
2 Oct 1993
Calendar, p. 1
Los Angeles Times
7 Dec 1995
---
Los Angeles Times
10 Dec 2004
Section E, p. 20
Mail on Sunday [London]
2 Aug 2009
p. 20
New York Times
24 Sep 1993
p. 12
New York Times
18 Nov 2015
Section C, p. 3
Texas Monthly
Oct 2003
pp. 121-123, 159-162
Variety
21 Jun 1993
pp. 41-42
Village Voice
5 Oct 1993
p. 60, 62
Village Voice
5 Jul 2006
---
CAST
PRODUCTION CREDITS
NAME
PARENT COMPANY
PRODUCTION COMPANIES
PRODUCTION TEXTS
Gramercy Pictures presents
An Alphaville production
In association with Detour Filmproduction
DISTRIBUTION COMPANY
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
DIRECTORS
Prod mgr
Addl prod mgr
1st asst dir
2d asst dir
2d 2d asst dir
PRODUCERS
WRITER
PHOTOGRAPHY
Dir of photog
2d unit dir of photog
Addl cam op
1st asst cam
Addl 1st asst
Addl 1st asst
Addl 1st asst
Addl 1st asst
2d asst cam
Cam loader
Cam asst
Gaffer
Best boy elec
Key grip
Best boy grip
Film processing
Dallas
Grip & lighting equip provided by
Miami
Cam systems by
Dallas
Still photog
ART DIRECTORS
Prod des
Asst art dir
Art dept coord
Storyboard artist
Art dept asst
Art dept asst
Art dept asst
Art dept asst
FILM EDITORS
EMC² ed
Asst ed
2d asst ed
Apprentice ed
Apprentice ed
Negative cutter
Negative cutter
SET DECORATORS
Set dec
Lead person
Co-lead person
Const coord
Carpenter
Scenic painter
Set painter
Prop master
Asst props
Asst props
COSTUMES
Addl cost des
Cost supv
Set cost
Extras ward supv
Extras set cost
MUSIC
Jeffrey Charbonneau
Mus ed
Mus ed
Mus supv
SOUND
Cable puller
Supv sd ed
Supv sd ed
Sd ed
Sd ed
1st asst sd ed
2d asst sd ed
Apprentice sd ed
Apprentice sd ed
Supv re-rec mixer
Re-rec mixer
ADR mixer
ADR rec
ADR voice casting
ADR rec at
ADR Texas rec at
Foley mixer
Foley rec
John B. Roesch
Foley artist
Foley artist
Foley rec at
VISUAL EFFECTS
Titles & opticals
MAKEUP
Hair stylist
Hair stylist
Asst hair stylist
Makeup artist
Makeup asst
Addl makeup artist
PRODUCTION MISC
Casting
New York casting
Casting asst
Texas casting asst
Extras casting asst
Extras casting intern
Loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Scr supv
Prod coord
Asst prod coord
Prod accountant
Asst accountant
Asst accountant
Post prod supv
Texas post prod facility
Asst to Richard Linklater
Asst to Sean Daniel
Asst to James Jacks
Key set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Set prod asst
Post prod asst
Post prod asst
Office asst
Office asst
Office intern
Transportation coord
Transportation capt
Picture car mechanic
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Caterer
Craft service
Asst craft service
Asst craft service
Legal services
Legal services
Unit pub
Set medic
STAND INS
Stunt coord
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stand-in
Stand-in
Stand-in
COLOR PERSONNEL
Col timer
SOURCES
SONGS
"Sweet Emotion," written by Steve Tyler & Tom Hamilton, performed by Aerosmith, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "Highway Star," written by Ritchie Blackmore, Ian Paice, Jon Lord, Ian Gillan & Roger Glover, performed by Deep Purple, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "School's Out," written by Alice Cooper & Michael Bruce, performed by Alice Cooper, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Jim Dandy," written by Lincoln Chase, performed by Black Oak Arkansas, courtesy of Atlantic Recording Corp., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Why Can't We Be Friends," written by Jerry Goldstein, Harold Brown, "Papa" Dee Allen, B. B. Dickerson, Howard Scott, Lonnie Jordan, Lee Oskar & Charles Miller, performed by War, courtesy of Rhino Records/Avenue Records; "Stranglehold," written & performed by Ted Nugent, courtesy of Epic Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "Free Ride," written by Dan Hartman, performed by Edgar Winter, courtesy of Blue Sky/Epic Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "No More Mr. Nice Guy," written by Alice Cooper & Michael Bruce, performed by Alice Cooper, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Do You Feel Like We Do," written by John Siomos, Peter Frampton, Rick Wills & Mick Gallagher, performed by Peter Frampton, courtesy of A&M Records, Inc.; "Low Rider," written by Jerry Goldstein, Harold Brown, "Papa" Dee Allen, B. B. Dickerson, Howard Scott, Lonnie Jordan, Lee Oskar & Charles Miller, performed by War, courtesy of Rhino Records/Avenue Records; "Hurricane," music by Bob Dylan, lyrics by Bob Dylan & Jacque[s] Levy, performed by Bob Dylan, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "I Just Want To Make Love To You," written by Willie Dixon, performed by Foghat, courtesy of Rhino Records/Bearsville Records; "Love Hurts," written by Boudleaux Bryant, performed by Nazareth, courtesy of A&M Records, Inc.; "Paranoid," written by Anthony Iommi, William Ward, Terrance Butler & John Osbourne, performed by Black Sabbath, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "There's Never Been Any Reason," written by Mike Somerville, performed by Head East, courtesy of A&M Records, Inc.; "Fox on the Run," written by Brian Connolly, Steve Priest, Andy Scott & Mike Tucker, performed by Sweet, courtesy of Capitol Records, by arrangement with CEMA Special Markets; "Tush," written by Billy Gibbons, Frank Beard & Dusty Hill, performed by ZZ Top, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Slow Ride," written by Dave Peverett, performed by Foghat, courtesy of Rhino Records/Bearsville Records; "Rock & Roll Hoochie Koo," written & performed by Rick Derringer, courtesy of Blue Sky/Epic Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "Show Me The Way," written & performed by Peter Frampton, courtesy of A&M Records, Inc.; "Lord Have Mercy On My Soul," written by Jim Mangrum & Harvey Jett, performed by Black Oak Arkansas, courtesy of Atlantic Recording Corp., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Balinese," written by Billy Gibbons, Dusty Hill & Frank Beard, performed by ZZ Top, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Rock & Roll All Nite," written by Gene Simmons & Paul Stanley, performed by Kiss, courtesy of Polygram Special Markets, a division of PolyGram Group Distribution; "Right Place, Wrong Time," written by Malcolm J. Rebennack, performed by Dr. John, courtesy Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Livin’ In The USA," written & performed by Steve Miller, courtesy of Capitol Records, by arrangement with CEMA Special Markets; "Hey Baby," written by Derek St. Holmes, performed by Ted Nugent, courtesy of Epic Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing; "Cherry Bomb," written by Joan Jett & Kim Fowley, performed by The Runaways, courtesy of PolyGram Special Markets, a division of PolyGram Group Distribution; "Summer Breeze," written & performed by Seals & Crofts, courtesy of Warner Bros. Records Inc., by arrangement with Warner Special Products; "Tuesday's Gone," written by Allen Collins & Ronnie Van Zant, performed by Lynyrd Skynyrd, courtesy of MCA Records.
SONGWRITERS/COMPOSERS
+
DETAILS
Release Date:
23 September 1993
Premiere Information:
Los Angeles and New York openings: 24 Sep 1993
Production Date:
began 13 Jul 1992
Copyright Info
Claimant
Date
Copyright Number
Universal City Studios, Inc.
19 July 1994
PA712065
Physical Properties:
Sound
Dolby Stereo in selected theatres
Color
Deluxe
Prints
Eastman Color film
Duration(in mins):
101
MPAA Rating:
R
Country:
United States
Language:
English
PCA No:
32381
SYNOPSIS

On 28 May 1976, teenagers at Lee High School in small-town Texas smoke marijuana and socialize on the last day of school before summer break. Star football quarterback Randy “Pink” Floyd hangs out with a group of “potheads,” including Slater, the beautiful Michelle, and Michelle’s boyfriend, Kevin Pickford, who is planning to host a party that night. Coach Conrad seeks out football players, demanding they sign a letter of commitment, promising not to do drugs in the upcoming football season, and turn it in by the end of the day. He is particularly concerned about Pink, who has been hanging out with the “wrong crowd,” but Pink is ambivalent about signing the letter. In one class, kids pass the time brainstorming every episode of the television series Gilligan’s Island they can remember. Retreating to the girls’ bathroom, Kaye informs her friends Shavonne and Jodi Kramer that Gilligan’s Island is a sexist male fantasy. Later, in a U.S. History class, a young teacher named Ms. Stroud reminds students that when they celebrate the bicentennial of the United States that summer, what they are really celebrating is the fact that a group of slave-owning, aristocratic white men did not want to pay their taxes. The final bell rings, and students pour into the halls. Graduating juniors put on “Seniors” T-shirts and drive to the nearby junior high, where they round up graduating eighth-graders, now incoming freshmen, for a ritual hazing. Led by a bully named O’Bannion, the senior boys spank the freshman boys ...

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On 28 May 1976, teenagers at Lee High School in small-town Texas smoke marijuana and socialize on the last day of school before summer break. Star football quarterback Randy “Pink” Floyd hangs out with a group of “potheads,” including Slater, the beautiful Michelle, and Michelle’s boyfriend, Kevin Pickford, who is planning to host a party that night. Coach Conrad seeks out football players, demanding they sign a letter of commitment, promising not to do drugs in the upcoming football season, and turn it in by the end of the day. He is particularly concerned about Pink, who has been hanging out with the “wrong crowd,” but Pink is ambivalent about signing the letter. In one class, kids pass the time brainstorming every episode of the television series Gilligan’s Island they can remember. Retreating to the girls’ bathroom, Kaye informs her friends Shavonne and Jodi Kramer that Gilligan’s Island is a sexist male fantasy. Later, in a U.S. History class, a young teacher named Ms. Stroud reminds students that when they celebrate the bicentennial of the United States that summer, what they are really celebrating is the fact that a group of slave-owning, aristocratic white men did not want to pay their taxes. The final bell rings, and students pour into the halls. Graduating juniors put on “Seniors” T-shirts and drive to the nearby junior high, where they round up graduating eighth-graders, now incoming freshmen, for a ritual hazing. Led by a bully named O’Bannion, the senior boys spank the freshman boys with homemade wooden paddles. Despite a request from Jodi Kramer that they “go easy” on her younger brother, Mitch, O’Bannion and his cohorts, football players Don, Benny, and Melvin, set out on a mission to find Mitch, who narrowly escapes in a friend’s car. Jodi joins Darla and other senior girls as they place pacifiers in the mouths of freshman girls and lead them through a series of humiliating exercises. Anytime Darla shouts “Air raid!,” the freshmen must drop to the ground. When they do not respond quickly enough, the seniors douse them in ketchup and mustard. The messy younger girls are then forced to propose marriage to senior boys. Afterward, they are driven through car washes in the back of pickup trucks. At Kevin Pickford’s house, Pink and Slater see Pickford’s parents packing for a weekend trip. The boys join Pickford and Michelle upstairs to smoke marijuana. An angry knock interrupts them, and Pickford’s dad demands to know why a liquor deliveryman is dropping off a keg of beer. Pickford denies ordering the keg, but his father is unconvinced and cancels his trip. That night, Mitch pitches a baseball game, while the senior boys taunt him from the stands. Mitch’s friends abandon him after the game. In the parking lot, Mitch is bent over the hood of a car and paddled by O’Bannion and several others. Pink arrives and spares Mitch a final spanking. Instead, he drives the boy home and invites him to hang out with him and his friends. Likewise, Mitch’s older sister, Jodi, singles out a freshman named Sabrina, and invites her out. With Kevin Pickford’s party cancelled, the teenagers resort to cruising around town and hanging out at the Emporium, a recreation center with arcade games and pool tables. A redheaded senior named Cynthia drives around with her cerebral friends, Mike and Tony, who disapprove of their classmates’ conformist ways, but agree to drop their inhibitions for the night. Wooderson, a twenty-something local who still hangs out with high school students, makes arrangements for a “beer bust” in lieu of Pickford’s party. Meanwhile, Mitch smokes marijuana for the first time and impresses his new friends by purchasing a six-pack of beer despite his youthful appearance. Outside the convenience store, Mitch runs into his friends, Carl Burnett, Tommy, and Hirshfelder, who was also paddled by O’Bannion. Mitch suggests they seek revenge. Back at the Emporium, he spreads a rumor that Carl Burnett has been rounded up and is waiting outside. O’Bannion grabs his paddle, eager to be the first to paddle Carl. However, just as he approaches his victim, Tommy and Hirshfelder peer over the roof of a nearby building and drop a bucket of paint on him. The younger boys flee in a getaway car while the paint-covered O’Bannion breaks his paddle in a temper tantrum. At a drive-in restaurant, Cynthia, Mike, and Tony see Wooderson, who flirts with Cynthia and invites them to a beer bust at the “Moon Tower.” Soon after, in a wooded area marked by a light tower, Wooderson and the Lee High School students continue to drink beer and smoke marijuana. Mitch gets drunk and climbs the Moon Tower with Pink and Slater. At the top, Pink gazes out and declares the town “dead.” Later, Mitch flirts with a sophomore named Julie. Jodi pulls Pink aside and kisses him, but reminds him he has a girl friend, Simone. Elsewhere, a drunken Simone trips and falls, laughing at herself. Slater prattles on about the history of marijuana in the United States, claiming that the first U.S. president, George Washington, and his wife, Martha, grew marijuana as a cash crop and smoked it on a regular basis. Cynthia complains that the 1970s are a worthless decade in comparison to the 1960s, and hopes that the 1980s will be radical. Freshman Sabrina finds Tony, to whom she proposed marriage as part of her hazing. They retreat to Cynthia’s car to talk alone. Eventually, the keg runs out of beer and the party breaks up. Slater suggests going to the football field to smoke a joint. Pink and fellow football player Don join him there, along with Wooderson, Simone, and her friend, Shavonne. Don urges Pink to sign the letter of commitment to the football team, but Wooderson argues that Pink should do whatever he wants. Simone wonders why Pink has such a problem with the letter, and reminds him that football players are “kings of the school.” Pink does not want to look back at high school as the best years of his life, but Don argues that he is just trying to do his best while he is stuck in this place. Two policemen shine a flashlight on the field, and the kids are ordered to line up. At sunrise, Coach Conrad arrives and reprimands Pink, who tells the coach he might play football next year, but will never sign the commitment letter. Meanwhile, Mitch and Judy lie on a picnic blanket and kiss. When she drops him off at home, Mitch’s mother greets him inside. She agrees not to punish him this time, but fears he is drunk. Mitch denies it, and happily retreats to his room to listen to music. Elsewwhere, Tony drops Sabrina off at home, and she pulls him in for a kiss. As they drive into town to buy tickets for a rock concert, Wooderson, Slater, Pink, and Simone smoke another joint.

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