Malcolm X (1992)

PG-13 | 201 mins | Biography, Drama | 18 November 1992

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HISTORY

The film begins with an image of an American flag interspersed with George Holliday’s home video footage of the 3 Mar 1991 beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers, accompanied by audio of a speech given by “Malcolm X,” charging “the white man” with various atrocities. The opening sequence concludes with the American flag burning, and, as pieces fall off, its tattered remains form an “X.”
       In a piece published in the 5 Jan 1993 LAT, Malcolm X’s eldest daughter, Attallah Shabazz, stated that in 1967, producer Marvin Worth approached Alex Haley and her mother, Dr. Betty Shabazz, about purchasing rights to The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Alex Haley and Malcolm X. Soon after, novelist James Baldwin was hired to write a manuscript that was developed into a screenplay by Arnold Perl. According to the 25 Oct 1991 DV, Betty Shabazz and her six children with Malcolm X were to receive a portion of Marvin Worth’s profit participation points in the film.
       The project remained in development for over twenty years. On 12 Jan 1986, an LAT brief noted a fifth draft of the script, written by novelist David Bradley (not to be confused with film director David Bradley), was underway. Playwrights David Mamet and Charles Fuller also worked on the script at different times, although they are not credited onscreen. Actors contending for the title role included Billy Dee Williams and Richard Pryor, while Sidney Lumet was briefly attached to direct.
       By May 1990, the film was nearing production at Warner Bros. with Norman Jewison set to direct a script he had worked ... More Less

The film begins with an image of an American flag interspersed with George Holliday’s home video footage of the 3 Mar 1991 beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers, accompanied by audio of a speech given by “Malcolm X,” charging “the white man” with various atrocities. The opening sequence concludes with the American flag burning, and, as pieces fall off, its tattered remains form an “X.”
       In a piece published in the 5 Jan 1993 LAT, Malcolm X’s eldest daughter, Attallah Shabazz, stated that in 1967, producer Marvin Worth approached Alex Haley and her mother, Dr. Betty Shabazz, about purchasing rights to The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Alex Haley and Malcolm X. Soon after, novelist James Baldwin was hired to write a manuscript that was developed into a screenplay by Arnold Perl. According to the 25 Oct 1991 DV, Betty Shabazz and her six children with Malcolm X were to receive a portion of Marvin Worth’s profit participation points in the film.
       The project remained in development for over twenty years. On 12 Jan 1986, an LAT brief noted a fifth draft of the script, written by novelist David Bradley (not to be confused with film director David Bradley), was underway. Playwrights David Mamet and Charles Fuller also worked on the script at different times, although they are not credited onscreen. Actors contending for the title role included Billy Dee Williams and Richard Pryor, while Sidney Lumet was briefly attached to direct.
       By May 1990, the film was nearing production at Warner Bros. with Norman Jewison set to direct a script he had worked on with Charles Fuller, and Denzel Washington was in talks to play Malcolm X, as noted in a 30 May 1990 Var item. Insisting that only a black director could tell Malcolm X’s story, Spike Lee protested Jewison’s involvement and insisted on directing himself. Marvin Worth consented, hiring Lee to replace Jewison. Warner Bros. agreed to finance despite the personnel change, and Lee began rewriting a version of the script by James Baldwin and Arnold Perl, as noted in the 16 Sep 1991 DV.
       When Spike Lee requested a $40 million production budget, Warner Bros. only agreed to finance $20 million. An additional $8.5 million was procured through the sale of foreign distribution rights to Largo International N.V.
       Concerned that Lee would take an exploitative approach, some black activist groups protested the making of the film, as noted in the 5 Aug 1991 Var and 9 Sep 1991 NYT. One protest rally took place 3 Aug 1991 at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, and another, organized by poet Amiri Baraka, was held 7 Sep 1991. Baraka publicly warned Spike Lee “not to mess up Malcolm’s life.” Lee rejected Baraka’s request to review the script. He and Baraka later declared a truce, according to a 16 Mar 1992 Time magazine article.
       Principal photography was preceded by second-unit photography in Mecca, Saudia Arabia, as noted in a 24 Jul 1991 DV. There, an all-Muslim crew shot exteriors only, as non-Muslims were not allowed in the city, according to an item in the 23 Sep 1991 People. Principal photography followed on 16 Sep 1991, according to the 15 Oct 1991 HR production chart. Although filmmakers originally wanted to shoot in 70mm, as noted in the 25 Oct 1991 DV, budget constrictions led them to shoot in Super 35mm – a camera format that uses full-frame aperture, and allows for better quality optical printing to other formats such as 1.85:1.
       New York City locations included sections of Harlem and Queens. For the scene depicting Malcolm X’s assassination, Lee wanted to use the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, where the real-life tragedy took place, but the derelict building was deemed unsafe due to asbestos issues, and the Diplomat Hotel in midtown Manhattan was used instead, according to a 16 Dec 1991 Var brief. The 15 Oct 1991 HR production chart also listed New Jersey and Boston, MA, as U.S. locations. In New Jersey, the Essex County prison, a condemned building in the city of Newark, stood in for the Boston prison where Malcolm X served time. New York filming wrapped in mid-Dec 1991, as noted in a 16 Dec 1991 Var item. Further filming took place in South Africa’s Soweto township, and, in mid-Jan 1992, in Cairo, Egypt, where a replica of Mecca’s El Ka-Aba was built.
       Lee went $4-$5 million over the $28 million budget. In Dec 1991, the film was still shooting in New York when Warner Bros. announced it would not provide additional money. The Completion Bond Company (CBC) assumed financial control of the picture. As noted in a 6 Apr 1992 DV article, it was not common practice for a major studio film to be taken over by a completion bond company, but Warner Bros. had made an arrangement with CBC knowing that, because of the controversial nature of the picture, they would not replace Lee with a different director if the production ran into problems. After CBC took over, Lee had to get their approval for all expenditures. According to a 3 Apr 1992 LAT article, CBC cut off funding after Lee intercepted layoff notices and continued to pay crewmembers the bond company was no longer willing to pay. With editing still underway, CBC sent a letter stating that any work undertaken after 27 Mar 1992 would be at the production company’s expense. To keep the payroll going, Lee reached out to prominent black entertainers and athletes, and raised an estimated $72,000 in donations from Bill Cosby, Michael Jordan, Oprah Winfrey, Prince, Janet Jackson, Magic Johnson, and Peggy Cooper-Cafritz, among others. According to the 22 May 1992 DV, Lee also invested $2 million of his $3 million salary into the film.
       Although Lee initially promised a 135-minute running time, as stated in the 10 Aug 1992 DV, he fought with Warner Bros. over the length, often citing Oliver Stone’s 189-minute JFK (1991, see entry), and arguing that a slain black hero should be afforded as much screen time as a slain white hero. The eventual running time came in at 201 minutes.
       A 16 Nov 1992 WSJ brief estimated that Warner Bros. spent a total of $40 million on production and marketing of Malcolm X. By that time, merchandise carrying the film’s “X” symbol had been in stores for months, including a popular baseball cap that was sold at Spike’s Joint, Lee’s own store in Brooklyn, as noted in the 25 Oct 1991 DV. As interviews were being lined up for Lee to promote the film, the director sparked controversy by requesting to be interviewed by black journalists, the 2 Nov 1992 HR reported. LAT refused to comply, and KCOP film critic Gary Franklin threatened to boycott the film, according to the 30 Oct 1992 DV, but Premiere magazine went along with the request by hiring black writer Ralph Wiley to interview Lee. The filmmaker later explained that his request had been a protest against hiring practices in the media world, and he cited a recent study by the American Society of Newspaper Editors that found black journalists accounted for only 4.8% of newsroom staffing in the U.S.
       As a result of the film’s subject matter and violence surrounding recent black films, including New Jack City and Boyz N the Hood (1991, see entries), the theatrical release of Malcolm X required extra security precautions. A 10 Nov 1992 DV item stated that LAPD Chief Willie Williams reached out to Spike Lee personally to make sure the opening went smoothly. Precautions were expected to be particularly high in Los Angeles, where only six months earlier, the Los Angeles riots (AKA the Rodney King riots) had taken place. According to a 15 Nov 1992 Long Beach Press-Telegram item, former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke argued potential violence as a reason to ban the film from theaters altogether, and his National Association for the Advancement of White People of Michigan sent letters to Detroit, MI, theaters, urging them to boycott the film.
       The inclusion of George Holliday’s home video footage of Rodney King’s beating became a point of contention when Holliday learned of Lee’s plans to use it in the opening credit sequence. Concerned that the sequence would incite more violence after the riots, Holliday sought an injunction against its use in the film, as well as $100,000 plus damages, according to an 11 Sep 1992 HR news brief. Holliday’s attorneys contended that the licensing deal Spike Lee made with Holliday’s former attorney, James Jordan, was invalid because Holliday had already severed ties with Jordan by the time it was negotiated. The lawsuit was settled for an undisclosed amount, according to a 2 Oct 1992 DV article, and Lee retained rights to use the footage. Another lawsuit, brought by Islamic technical consultant Jefri Aalmuhammed, charged that Aalmuhammed was not properly compensated or credited for making substantial script revisions and directing scenes shot in Egypt.
       A 26 Aug 1992 LAT article reported that Lee was calling for all African Americans, including schoolchildren, to take the day off on 20 Nov 1992 to see Malcolm X in theaters. Although he hoped the effort would “send Hollywood a message” about supporting black filmmakers, Lee rescinded the statement after coming under criticism from the black community. Notably, Attallah Shabazz was quoted in the 26 Oct 1992 Newsweek as saying, “I do not request nor do I think my father would want you to play hooky….Stay in school and learn. Stay at your job and feed your family.”
       Based on advance praise for Denzel Washington’s performance, Warner Bros. decided that a Wednesday release, accompanied by positive reviews, would bolster the opening-weekend box-office, as stated in a 23 Oct 1992 HR item. Therefore, the release date was moved from 20 Nov 1992 to 18 Nov 1992. The film opened in 1,124 theaters nationwide, and went on to gross $48.1 million, according to a 30 Mar 1996 Philadelphia Daily News article.
       Critical reception was largely positive, although some criticized the film’s slow pacing and three-hour-plus running time. As stated in a 30 Nov 1992 Long Beach Press-Telegram brief, the film received a notable endorsement from Betty Shabazz, who commended Lee for capturing the essence of her late husband “quite well”; however, she remarked that her screen persona, as portrayed by Angela Bassett, was more assertive than she had been in real life.
       Denzel Washington received an Academy Award nomination for Actor in a Leading Role, and Ruth E. Carter was nominated for the Academy Award for Costume Design. Malcolm X was named one of the top ten films of the year by the National Board of Review, and received the following National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Image Awards: Outstanding Motion Picture; Outstanding Lead Actor (Denzel Washington); Outstanding Supporting Actor (Al Freeman, Jr.); and Outstanding Supporting Actress (Angela Bassett).
       Al Freeman, Jr., who plays “Elijah Muhammad,” had previously appeared as Malcolm X in the TV miniseries Roots: The Next Generations (ABC, 18 Feb 1979—12 Jul 1981).
       End credits include the following statements: “JFK footage courtesy of Camelot Productions Corp.; Rodney King footage courtesy of George Holliday, copyright © 1991, all rights reserved; Joe Louis vs. Billy Conn fight sports audio courtesy of The Miley Collection, Evansville, Indiana; Malcolm X photos courtesy of Gordon Parks; ‘Soiling of Old Glory’ photo courtesy of Stanley Forman (1976 Pulitzer Prize)”; “Additional archival photos courtesy of: AP/Wide World Photos; Black Star Press; David Gahr; Dr. Laurance G. Henry; Joseph Louw, Life Magazine © Time Warner; National Archives; New York Post; Roy Schatt; New York Public Library/Schomburg Center; Time Magazine; Time Photo Syndication; Lloyd Yearwood”; “Additional archival footage courtesy of: CBS News Archives; NBC News Archives; Olympic footage courtesy of ABC Sports, International Olympic Committee, UCLA Film & Television Archive; WTN”; “Joe Louis’ name and likeness © 1991 Estate of Joe Louis under License authorized by Curtis Management Group, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; ‘Great Books of the Western World’ used with permission of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., © 1952, 1990; All Marvel characters: ™ & © 1991 Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc., used with permission, all rights reserved”; “Special Thanks to: Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques; King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud; His Royal Highness Prince Bandar Bin; Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Ambassador to the United States of America, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia; His Royal Highness Prince Mohammed Bin Faizal Bin; Turki Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Director of Islamic Affairs, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington, D.C.; His Excellency Doctor Shihab Jamjoon, Deputy Minister of Information; His Excellency Sheik El Hazar; His Excellency Nabil Murad; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Government of Cairo, Egypt; The African National Congress (ANC); Al-Azhar University; Aramex; Arthur Klein; Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO); Coca-Cola U.S.A.; Compass Forwarding; Congress of South African Students (COSAS); Converse, Inc.; David Dinkins; Downtown Holiday Inn; David Dubois; Early Halloween, Vintage Clothing N.Y.C.; Egypt Air; Emeco Travel; Film and Allied Worker’s Organisation (FAWO); Hellman International Forwarders; Quincy Jones; Logical Designs; Luster Products, Inc.; Maponya’s Rent-A-Car; Mkwanazi Caterers; Meridian Hotel; Miller Brewing Company; New Jersey Motion Picture & Television Commission; New York City Fire Department, Explosives Unit, Dept. Chief Inspector Robert A. Materasso; New York City Mayor’s Office of Film, Theater & Broadcasting; Nike; Phakamani Combined School, Soweto; Product Placement and Promotional Partners; Rahway State Prison Inmates; Oliver Stone; U.S. Embassy; Valley Railroad”; “Thank Allah for: Bill Cosby, Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Tracy Chapman, Prince, Janet Jackson, and Peggy Cooper-Cafritz”; “Thank Jesus for: Aretha Franklin and Arrested Development”; “In Memory of Alex Haley”; “Read ‘The Autobiography of Malcolm X’ published by Ballantine Books”; and, “This film is based upon ‘The Autobiography of Malcolm X’ as told to Alex Haley, and public records. Dialogue and certain events and characters contained in this film were created for the purposes of dramatization.”
       Credits for the Egyptian and South African film units acknowledge the assistance of MISR International Films and RM Productions, respectively. More Less

SOURCE CITATIONS
SOURCE
DATE
PAGE
[Cleveland, OH] Call & Post
20 Jan 1994.
---
Daily Variety
28 Nov 1985.
---
Daily Variety
24 Jul 1991.
---
Daily Variety
16 Sep 1991.
---
Daily Variety
25 Oct 1991.
---
Daily Variety
6 Apr 1992
p. 1, 16.
Daily Variety
22 May 1992.
---
Daily Variety
10 Aug 1992
p. 1, 8.
Daily Variety
2 Oct 1992
p. 1, 36.
Daily Variety
30 Oct 1992.
---
Daily Variety
10 Nov 1992
p. 2.
Daily Variety
11 Nov 1992.
---
Hollywood Reporter
17 Sep 1991.
---
Hollywood Reporter
15 Dec 1991.
---
Hollywood Reporter
17 Dec 1991.
---
Hollywood Reporter
11 Sep 1992
p. 1, 53.
Hollywood Reporter
23 Oct 1992.
---
Hollywood Reporter
2 Nov 1992
p. 6, 17.
Hollywood Reporter
10 Nov 1992
p. 6, 60.
Hollywood Reporter
4 Dec 1992
p. 3, 61.
Hollywood Reporter
14 Feb 2005
p. 11, 44.
Long Beach Press-Telegram
11 Aug 1991.
---
Long Beach Press-Telegram
15 Nov 1992.
---
Long Beach Press-Telegram
30 Nov 1992.
---
Los Angeles Times
12 Jan 1986.
---
Los Angeles Times
3 Apr 1992
Section F, p. 1, 6.
Los Angeles Times
21 May 1992
Section F, p. 1, 8.
Los Angeles Times
26 Aug 1992
Section F, p. 1, 5.
Los Angeles Times
18 Nov 1992
p. 1.
Los Angeles Times
19 Nov 1992
Section A, p. 3, 37.
Los Angeles Times
5 Jan 1993.
---
New York Times
9 Sep 1991
Section B, p. 1, 5.
New York Times
18 Nov 1992
p. 23.
Newsweek
26 Oct 1992.
---
People
23 Sep 1991.
---
Philadelphia Daily News
30 Mar 1996
p. 16.
Screen International
25 Sep 1992.
---
Time
16 Mar 1992.
---
Variety
30 May 1990.
---
Variety
5 Aug 1991.
---
Variety
16 Dec 1991.
---
Variety
16 Nov 1992
pp. 64-65.
Wall Street Journal
16 Nov 1992
Section B, p. 1, 6.
CAST
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
Barbers:
Followers at Temple #7:
[and]
Students in Harlem classroom:
Customers:
Prisoners:
[and]
TV reporters:
JFK reporters:
[and]
Hookers:
Mounted police:
[and]
KKK members:
Fruit of Islam:
[and]
Malcolm's FOI:
[and]
Elijah Muhammad's FOI:
Roseland dancers:
Skeleton crew dancers:
JFK sequence:
Special guest appearances:
+
PRODUCTION CREDITS
NAME
PARENT COMPANY
PRODUCTION COMPANY
PRODUCTION TEXTS
Warner Bros. Presents
In Association with Largo International N.V.
A 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks Production
A Marvin Worth Production
A Spike Lee Joint
NAME
CREDITED AS
CREDIT
DIRECTORS
Dir
Dir, 2d unit
1st prod mgr, Egypt
2d prod mgr, Egypt
Prod mgr, Egypt
Prod mgr, South Africa
Asst prod mgr, South Africa
1st asst dir
2d asst dir
2d asst dir
Asst dir, Egypt
Asst dir, South Africa
Asst dir, South Africa
PRODUCERS
Prod
Saudi Arabian prod, Foreign unit
Co-prod
Co-prod
Co-prod
Assoc prod
WRITERS
Scr
PHOTOGRAPHY
Dir of photog, 2d unit
Dir of photog, 2d unit
Dir of photog, Mecca
Cam op
Steadicam op
Steadicam asst
1st asst cam
1st asst cam
Addl 1st asst cam
1st asst cam, Mecca
1st asst cam, Mecca
2d asst cam
Addl 2d asst cam
Addl 2d asst cam
Addl 2d asst cam
Asst cam, Egypt
Cam trainee
Louma crane op
Louma crane op
Louma crane op
Chief lighting tech
Best boy
Best boy elec, South Africa
Generator op
Key rigging gaffer
Best boy/Rigging
Rigging elec
Rigging elec
Rigging elec
Elec, Egypt
Elec, South Africa
Elec, South Africa
Asst elec, Egypt
Asst elec, Egypt
Asst elec, Egypt
Key elec, South Africa
Elec trainee
Prod asst-Elec
Key grip
Key grip, South Africa
Key rigging grip
Best boy grip
Dolly/Crane grip
Rigging grip
Rigging grip
Grip, Egypt
Asst grip, Egypt
Asst grip, Egypt
Intern-Grip, Egypt
Intern-Cam, Egypt
Intern-cam, Egypt
Grip, South Africa
Grip, South Africa
Still photog
Asst to the still photog
Arriflex cam & lighting equip
Grip equip
Addl lighting equip
Musco light tech
Musco light tech
ART DIRECTORS
Prod des
Art dir
Art dir, Egypt
1st asst art dir
Asst art dir
Asst art dir
Asst art dir
Asst art dir
Asst art dir
Asst art dir
Asst art dir/Ward, Egypt
Asst art dir/Set, Egypt
Graphic artist
Art dept researcher
Art dept coord
Storyboard artist
Prod asst-Art dept
Prod asst-Art dept
Prod asst-Art dept
FILM EDITORS
1st asst ed
1st asst ed
2d asst ed
2d asst ed
Apprentice ed
Negative matching
SET DECORATORS
Set dec
Asst set dec
Asst set dec
2d set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dresser
Set dec coord
Drapist
Prop master
Props, Egypt
1st asst props
2d asst props
Asst props
Asst props
Const coord
Const foreman
Const foreman
Shop foreman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Shop craftsman
Key const grip
Const grip best boy
Const grip best boy
Const grip best boy
Const grip best boy
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const grip
Const gaffer
Const elec best boys
Const elec best boys
Const elec best boys
Const elec best boys
Const shop elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Const elec
Chargeman scenic artist
Cam scenic artist
Scenic artist 2d
Scenic artist 2d
Scenic artist 2d
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic artist
Scenic shopperson
Scenic shopperson
Scenic shopperson
Scenic shopperson
Scenic shopperson
Prod asst-Const
Shop helper
Shop craftsman/Trainee
Const grip trainee
Prod asst-Props
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set
Prod asst-Set dressing
Prod asst-Swing
Prod asst-Swing
Prod asst-Swing
Prod asst-Swing
Prod asst-Swing
Prod asst-Swing
COSTUMES
Cost des
Asst cost des
Asst to the cost des
Asst to the cost des
Cost des coord
Ward supv
Ward supv
Extras ward supv
Ward, Egypt
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Addl ward
Prod asst-Ward
MUSIC
Orig mus score
Mus supv
Assoc mus ed
Mus rec eng
Mus rec eng
Mus rec eng
Mus rec eng
Mus comp and cond by, Malcolm X Orchestra
Concert Master, Violins, Malcolm X Orchestra
Contractor, Violins, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Violin, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Viola, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Cello, Malcolm X Orchestra
Bass, Malcolm X Orchestra
Bass, Malcolm X Orchestra
Bass, Malcolm X Orchestra
Bass, Malcolm X Orchestra
Flute, Malcolm X Orchestra
Oboe, Malcolm X Orchestra
English horn, Malcolm X Orchestra
French horn, Malcolm X Orchestra
French horn, Malcolm X Orchestra
Tuba, Malcolm X Orchestra
Trombone, Malcolm X Orchestra
Piano, Malcolm X Orchestra
Clarinet, Malcolm X Orchestra
Trumpet, Malcolm X Orchestra
Trumpet, Malcolm X Orchestra
Oud, Malcolm X Orchestra
Dass, Malcolm X Orchestra
Drums, Malcolm X Orchestra
Percussion, Malcolm X Orchestra
Percussion, Malcolm X Orchestra
Percussion, Malcolm X Orchestra
Leader, Trumpet, Big Band
Trumpet, Big Band
Trumpet, Big Band
Alto saxophone, Big Band
Alto saxophone, Big Band
Piano, Big Band
Bass, Big Band
Drums, Big Band
Trombone, Big Band
Trombone, Big Band
Trombone, Big Band
And special appearance by
Tenor and soprano saxophones, Big Band
Founder/Dir, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Alto, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Bass, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Soprano, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Tenor, The Boys Choir of Harlem
Mus score rec and mixed at
SOUND
Boom op
Cable
1st asst sd, Egypt
Supv sd ed
Rerec mixer
Dial ed
Tech eng
Tech eng
Sd f/x ed
Foley supv
Foley ed
Foley ed
Foley ed
Foley ed
ADR supv
ADR eng
ADR ed
Asst ADR ed
Asst ADR ed
Asst sd ed
Asst sd ed
Apprentice sd ed
Apprentice sd ed
Apprentice sd ed
Apprentice sd ed
Foley mixer
Prod asst-Sd
Prod asst-Sd
Post-prod sd
Mixed at
VISUAL EFFECTS
Visual eff supv
Eff props
Pyrotechnician
Motion control op
Motion control asst
1st asst spec eff
Spec eff asst
Spec eff asst
Spec eff asst
Spec eff asst
Prod asst-Spec eff
Visual eff prod by
Opticals by
Eastern Optical EFX
Addl opticals provided by
Addl opticals provided by
Main and end titles des and prod by
DANCE
Choreog
Asst choreog
Dance coord
Dance consultant
Dance asst
Dance asst
Prod asst-Dance
Prod asst-Dance
Prod asst-Dance
MAKEUP
Key hairstylist
Hairstylist
Hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Addl hairstylist
Key make-up
Make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
Addl make-up
PRODUCTION MISC
Casting
Casting dir, Egypt
Asst casting dir, Egypt
Casting, Egypt
Casting assoc
Casting assoc
Los Angeles casting assoc
Extras casting
Extras casting
Extras casting
Extras casting asst
Extras casting asst
Extras casting asst
Extras casting asst
Extras casting asst
Project consultant
Historical consultant
Islamic tech consultant
Prod office coord
40 Acres and a Mule comptroller
Office coord
Asst to the comptroller
Asst prod office coord
Asst prod office coord
Prod secy
Prod comptroller
Asst auditor
Script/Continuity
Unit pub
Foreign prod coord
Unit loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Asst loc mgr
Loc office coord
Loc asst
Loc asst
Loc asst
Loc asst
Loc asst
Loc asst
Loc asst
Asst ward coord
Addl ward
Permits coord, Egypt
Prod asst, Egypt
Prod asst, Egypt
Prod asst, Egypt
Asst to Mr. Sulichin, Egypt
Prod asst-Office, Egypt
Prod asst-Office, Egypt
Prod asst-Office, Egypt
Office intern, Egypt
Accountant intern, Egypt
Accountant intern, Egypt
Accountant intern, Egypt
Prod asst, South Africa
Prod asst, South Africa
Prod asst, South Africa
Prod asst, South Africa
Prod asst, South Africa
Prod asst, South Africa
Driver, South Africa
Driver, South Africa
Driver, South Africa
Driver, South Africa
Prod secy, South Africa
Post prod asst
Transfer asst
Post prod supv
Post prod auditor
Post prod coord
Post prod office coord
Post prod asst auditor
Projectionist
Asst projectionist
Asst projectionist
Teamster capt
Teamster co-capt
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Driver/Chauffeur
Helper
Helper
Picture car coord
Parking coord
Parking supv
Asst parking coord
Asst to Mr. Lee
Asst to Mr. Lee
Asst to Mr. Worth
Dir trainee
40 Acres and a Mule prod asst
40 Acres and a Mule prod asst
40 Acres and a Mule prod asst
Continuity prod asst
Prod asst-Accounting
Prod asst-Casting
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Loc
Prod asst-Office
Prod asst-Pub
Prod asst-2d unit
Archive film asst
Archival clearance coord
Product placement coord
Craft service dir
Craft services
Craft services
Craft services
Craft services
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Intern
Payroll services provided by
Security
Security
Security
Picture cars provided by
Product placement and promotional rights negotiate
A Division of Strachan*McDuffie Communications Group, Inc.
Projection equip
Projection facility
Archival footage research
Archival opticals provided by
Medical coord
Animals trained and provided by
Animal security
STAND INS
Stunt safety
Stunt safety
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt fireman
Stunt waitress
Stunt patron
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunts
Stunt coord
COLOR PERSONNEL
Col timer
SOURCES
LITERARY
Based on the book The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Alex Haley & Malcolm X (New York, 1965).
SONGS
"Someday We'll All Be Free," written by Donny E. Hathaway and Edward U. Howard, used by permission of WB Music Corp. and Kuumba Music Publishing Company, produced by Arif Mardin, performed by Aretha Franklin, courtesy of Arista Records, Inc.
"Roll 'Em Pete," written by Pete Johnson and Joe Turner, used by permission of MCA Music Pub., a div. of MCA, Inc., performed by Joe Turner, courtesy of Atlantic Recording Corp., by arrangement with Warner Special Products
"Flying Home," written by Benny Goodman and Lionel Hampton, used by permission of Jewel Music Publishing Co., Inc. and Regent Music Corporation, performed by Lionel Hampton, courtesy of MCA Records
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SONGS
"Someday We'll All Be Free," written by Donny E. Hathaway and Edward U. Howard, used by permission of WB Music Corp. and Kuumba Music Publishing Company, produced by Arif Mardin, performed by Aretha Franklin, courtesy of Arista Records, Inc.
"Roll 'Em Pete," written by Pete Johnson and Joe Turner, used by permission of MCA Music Pub., a div. of MCA, Inc., performed by Joe Turner, courtesy of Atlantic Recording Corp., by arrangement with Warner Special Products
"Flying Home," written by Benny Goodman and Lionel Hampton, used by permission of Jewel Music Publishing Co., Inc. and Regent Music Corporation, performed by Lionel Hampton, courtesy of MCA Records
"Stardust," written by Hoagy Carmichael and Mitchell Parrish, used by permission of Mills Music Inc., performed by Lionel Hampton, courtesy of MCA Records
"My Prayer," written by Jimmy Kennedy and Georges Boulanger, used by permission of Skidmore Music Co., Inc., performed by The Ink Spots, courtesy of MCA Records
"Stairway to the Stars," written by Mitchell Parrish, Matt Malneck and Frank Signorelli, used by permission of EMI Robbins Catalog Inc., performed by Ella Fitzgerald, courtesy of MCA Records
"The Honeydripper," written by Joe Liggins, published by Northern Music Corporation, performed by Joe Liggins and the Honeydrippers, courtesy of Fantasy, Inc.
"Drop Me Off in Harlem," written by Duke Ellington and Nick Kenny, used by permission of Mills Music Inc., performed by Ella Fitzgerald, courtesy of Polygram Special Markets
"Hamp's Boogie Woogie," written by Milton Buckner and Lionel Hampton, used by permission of EMI Robbins Catalog Inc., performed by Lionel Hampton, courtesy of MCA Records
"Undecided Blues," written by Don Robey, used by permission of MCA Music Pub., a div. of MCA, Inc., performed by Count Basie, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing
"Don't Cry Baby," written by Jimmy Johnson, Stella Unger, Saul Bernie, used by permission of Warner Bros. Inc., performed by Erskine Hawkins, courtesy of The RCA Records Label of BMG Music
"Big Stuff," written by Leonard Bernstein, used by permission of Warner Bros. Inc., performed by Billie Holiday, courtesy of MCA Records
"The Jitters," written by Tab Smith, used by permission of WB Music Corp., performed by Count Basie, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing
"Feedin' the Bean," written by Count Basie, used by permission of WB Music Corp., performed by Count Basie, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing
"I Cover the Waterfront," written by John W. Green and Edward Heyman, used by permission of Warner Bros. Inc., performed by Miki Howard, courtesy of Giant Records
"Undecided," written by Sid Robin and Charles Shavers, used by permission of MCA Music Pub., a div. of MCA, Inc., performed by Ella Fitzgerald, courtesy of MCA Records
"Chew Chew Chew," written by Ella Fitzgerald, Buck Ram and Chick Webb, used by permission of Mills Music Inc. and Rytvoc Corp., performed by Ella Fitzgerald, courtesy of MCA Records
"Beans and Cornbread," written by F. Clark and F. Moore, used by permission of Cherio Corporation, performed by Louis Jordan, courtesy of MCA Records
"Round and Round," written by Lou Stallman and Joe Shapiro, used by permission of Lou Stallman Music and Pinelawn Music Publishing Co., Inc., performed by Perry Como, courtesy of the RCA Records Label of BMG Music
"Azure," written by Duke Ellington and Irving Mills, used by permission of Mills Music Inc., performed by Ella Fitzgerald, courtesy of Polygram Special Markets
"We Shall Overcome," written by Zilphia Horton, Guy Carawan, Frank Hamilton and Pete Seeger, used by permission of Ludlow Music, Inc.
"Alabama," written by John Coltrane, used by permission of Jowcol Music, performed by John Coltrane, courtesy of MCA Records
"That Lucky Old Sun (Just Rolls Around in Heaven)," written by Haven Gillespie and Beasley Smith, used by permission of EMI Robbins Catalog Inc., performed by Ray Charles, courtesy of Ray Charles Enterprises, Inc.
"Arabesque Cookie," written by Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn, used by permission of Famous Music Corporation and Tempo Music, performed by Duke Ellington, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony Music Licensing
"Shotgun," written by Autry DeWalt, used by permission of Stone Agate Music (a division of Jobete Music Co., Inc.), performed by Jr. Walker & The All Stars, courtesy of Motown Record Company, L.P.
"Revolution," a song by Arrested Development, used by permission of EMI Blackwood Music Inc./Arrested Development Music, courtesy of Chrysalis Records, Inc., a division of EMI Records Group, N.A., "Revolution" contains a sample of "Hey Wena Gatsha (Hey You Gatsha)," from Radio Freedom: Conversations with the African National Congress, courtesy of Rounder Records
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DETAILS
Release Date:
18 November 1992
Premiere Information:
Los Angeles and New York openings: 18 Nov 1992
Production Date:
16 Sep 1991--mid Jan 1992
Copyright Claimant:
Warner Brothers, a division of Time Warner Entertainment Company, LP
Copyright Date:
16 September 1993
Copyright Number:
PA625511
Physical Properties:
Sound
Dolby Stereo in selected theatres
Color
DuArt Laboratories
Lenses/Prints
Prints by Technicolor
Duration(in mins):
201
MPAA Rating:
PG-13
Country:
United States
Language:
English
PCA No:
32102
Passed by NBR:
No
SYNOPSIS

In 1940s Boston, Massachusetts, African American Malcolm “Red” Little goes to a barber shop to have his kinky red hair straightened. Malcolm’s friend “Shorty” applies a chemical product that burns his scalp, but Malcolm is pleased with the results. They dress in zoot suits and go to Roseland Ballroom in New York City. There, Malcolm loses interest in his girl friend, Laura, when a white woman named Sophia seduces him. He and Sophia begin an interracial affair, although Malcolm suspects her of using him for sex. Malcolm recalls his childhood, when his father was killed and his mother was deemed an unfit parent, and he and his siblings were sent to live in foster care. Malcolm was raised by a white woman and was the only black student at his school. He was often referred to by racial slurs, and came to accept the disrespect from whites as normal. When he expressed ambitions to become a lawyer, his white teacher suggested he lower his expectations and become a carpenter instead. Now, Malcolm works as a porter. He resents his white boss and white patrons, but pretends to be cheery and subservient. At a bar in Harlem, Malcolm meets “West Indian Archie,” a gangster who runs an illegal “numbers” racket. Malcolm goes to work for Archie, who instructs him to memorize people’s bets instead of writing them down, to avoid being caught. Archie introduces Malcolm to cocaine, and Malcolm develops a dependency on the drug. One night, Malcolm informs Archie he picked a winning number and is owed $600. Archie does not recall Malcolm making such a bet, but Malcolm insists he did. Archie pays him, but after checking with ... +


In 1940s Boston, Massachusetts, African American Malcolm “Red” Little goes to a barber shop to have his kinky red hair straightened. Malcolm’s friend “Shorty” applies a chemical product that burns his scalp, but Malcolm is pleased with the results. They dress in zoot suits and go to Roseland Ballroom in New York City. There, Malcolm loses interest in his girl friend, Laura, when a white woman named Sophia seduces him. He and Sophia begin an interracial affair, although Malcolm suspects her of using him for sex. Malcolm recalls his childhood, when his father was killed and his mother was deemed an unfit parent, and he and his siblings were sent to live in foster care. Malcolm was raised by a white woman and was the only black student at his school. He was often referred to by racial slurs, and came to accept the disrespect from whites as normal. When he expressed ambitions to become a lawyer, his white teacher suggested he lower his expectations and become a carpenter instead. Now, Malcolm works as a porter. He resents his white boss and white patrons, but pretends to be cheery and subservient. At a bar in Harlem, Malcolm meets “West Indian Archie,” a gangster who runs an illegal “numbers” racket. Malcolm goes to work for Archie, who instructs him to memorize people’s bets instead of writing them down, to avoid being caught. Archie introduces Malcolm to cocaine, and Malcolm develops a dependency on the drug. One night, Malcolm informs Archie he picked a winning number and is owed $600. Archie does not recall Malcolm making such a bet, but Malcolm insists he did. Archie pays him, but after checking with his “collector,” accuses Malcolm of lying. Archie and his heavies corner Malcolm at a jazz club and escort him out. Fearing for his life, Malcolm escapes. He recalls the black-hooded men who burnt his childhood home to the ground and killed his father, a minister who stood up to the white supremacists who routinely terrorized his family. Returning to Boston, Malcolm conspires with his white girl friend, Sophia, Shorty and his white girl friend, Peg, and a getaway driver named Rudy, to rob the home of a wealthy couple. Malcolm, Shorty, and their girl friends are arrested for the crime. Sophia and Peg are sentenced to two years in a women’s reformatory, while Malcolm and Shorty are found guilty on fourteen counts, and sentenced to eight-to-ten years with hard labor. Malcolm believes he and Shorty were punished for the “real crime” of sleeping with white women. In prison, Malcolm is sent to solitary confinement for disobedience. Cocaine withdrawal makes him especially irritable. A fellow inmate named Baines offers Malcolm nutmeg to ease his symptoms. Baines reprimands him for trying to look like a white man by putting relaxer in his hair, and reveals himself to be a member of the Nation of Islam, a black Islamic sect led by Elijah Muhammad. He promises that Muhammad’s teachings can offer Malcolm true freedom. Malcolm is impressed by Baines’s intellect and composure. Baines teaches him to avoid cigarettes, alcohol, and pork. He insists that God is black, and although all black men hail from a race of kings, they have been taught otherwise by white men, who are inherently evil. According to Nation of Islam's custom, Malcolm changes his last name to “X,” to symbolize the shedding of a surname assigned by white slave masters. Malcolm X writes letters to Elijah Muhammad, who is impressed by his devotion. When he is finally released from prison, Malcolm joins Baines in New York City. He is introduced to Elijah Muhammad, whose mere presence moves Malcolm to tears. Going to work for the Nation of Islam, Malcolm preaches to new recruits. He meets Betty, a nurse and devout Muslim, after one of his sermons. At a diner, they discuss Elijah Muhammad’s teachings that a man should seek a wife who is similar in height and complexion, who is half his age plus seven years, loves children, and can sew and cook. They are interrupted by news that Nation of Islam member “Brother Johnson” was attacked by police and arrested. Malcolm leads a group of protestors to the police station where Johnson is being held. He finds Johnson wounded and in need of medical attention, and insists police call an ambulance, or the Nation of Islam members will not disperse. Malcolm’s group marches to the hospital to see that Johnson gets proper care. A police officer is disturbed by how well organized the protestors are, and remarks that Malcolm has too much power for one man. As Malcolm X gains in popularity, Elijah Muhammad makes him the Nation of Islam’s National Minister, responsible for touring the country and establishing new mosques. Malcolm calls Betty and proposes marriage. Although he warns her that marriage will be difficult since he travels so much, she is eager to be his wife and have his children. Responding to accusations that he preaches a message of hate, Malcolm argues that his teachings are based on his love for fellow black people. He appears on a television talk show where he is accused of being a demagogue who teaches black supremacy. Meanwhile, Betty takes notice that Elijah Muhammad and other Nation of Islam ministers are buying fancy cars and large homes. She fears Malcolm is blind to corruption within the organization, and asks if he knows about paternity lawsuits being brought against Elijah Muhammad by two of his former secretaries. Malcolm meets with the young women and believes their stories. He confronts Elijah Muhammad, who admits he impregnated the women to “spread his seed.” Malcolm also confronts Baines, who stopped including Malcolm’s writings in the Nation of Islam newspaper Malcolm himself founded. Baines wrongly assumes Malcolm wants material compensation and offers him a car or a house. Malcolm’s faith in the Nation of Islam is shaken. When President John F. Kennedy is assassinated, Malcolm publicly states that the tragedy is divine justice. He says “the chickens are coming home to roost” for the evils perpetrated by white men. Elijah Muhammad reprimands Malcolm for alienating Americans who loved the president, and forbids him preaching or speaking to the press for ninety days. A confidant of Malcolm’s reveals the Nation of Islam’s plans to assassinate him. At a press conference, Malcolm announces his separation from the Nation of Islam, along with his plans to start a new mosque in New York City. He makes a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia, where he encounters Muslims of all races. A spiritual awakening prompts him to return to the U.S. with a message of unity. He no longer believes all white people are evil, and espouses that the true practice of Islam can destroy racism. Although he formerly denounced non-violent black activists as “Uncle Toms,” Malcolm now intends to collaborate with anyone interested in positive results. At home, Malcolm and Betty are bombarded by menacing phone calls and death threats. One night, several Molotov cocktails come crashing through their windows. A fire ensues. Malcolm and Betty rescue their daughters and call police. Malcolm is certain the arsonists were sent by the Nation of Islam. He almost cancels his next speaking engagement, but decides at the last minute to go onstage. Seeing Betty and his daughters seated in the front row, Malcolm approaches the podium. A man in the audience drops tear gas, and, in the ensuing chaos, Malcolm is shot dead by three assassins. African American activist Martin Luther King, Jr. responds to news of Malcolm’s death by calling it a tragedy and denouncing the use of violence to express dissent. Malcolm’s legacy is celebrated by educators and black leaders around the world, and he continues to inspire young black people long after his death. +

Legend
Viewed by AFI
Partially Viewed
Offscreen Credit
Name Occurs Before Title
AFI Life Achievement Award

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